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A bstract .   Casino gambling is a popular form of entertainment and is purported to have positive effects on host economies. The industry surely affects local labor markets and tax revenues. However, there has been little evidence on the effects of casino gambling on state economic growth. This paper examines that relationship using Granger-causality analysis modified for use with panel data. Our results indicate that there is no Granger-causal relationship between real casino revenues and real per capita income at the state level. The results are based on annual data from 1991 to 2005. These findings contradict an earlier study that found that casino revenues Granger-cause economic growth, using quarterly data from 1991 to 1996. Possible explanations for the differences in short- and long-run effects are discussed.  相似文献   

This article investigates the tendency towards an interiorized and encapsulated urbanity in Macau and the functional role of this phenomenon in the ‘mental life’ of Chinese consumers. A Portuguese territory for half a millennium, Macau was returned to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1999; the postcolonial, semi‐autonomous Macau Special Administrative Region has subsequently become the most lucrative casino gaming site in the world, far surpassing casino revenues earned in Las Vegas. This article investigates the manner in which the local government of the city‐state and the central government of the PRC have colluded with transnational capital to effect a remarkable enclosure of the urban commons in Macau. The entire city today may be understood as a biopolitical laboratory of consumption, where the PRC uses a preferential exit visa policy to allow tourists from select, relatively affluent provinces access to Macau. The new built environment of the city naturalizes a radical urban imaginary and corresponding post‐socialist ‘quality’ consumer subject; that subject is crucial to the macroeconomic goals of the PRC and the sustainability of global capitalism.  相似文献   

This paper examines the politics that has permeated the development and implementation of public policy in Britain around casino gambling during the last 15 years. Casino gambling is said to be always controversial, with many claims and counter‐claims about its impact on individuals and communities. The author reviews the evolution of the Gambling Act 2005 to highlight the nature of the politics of casino gambling in liberal democracies and draws some lessons from the British experience that may assist policy‐making with regard to casino gambling in the future.  相似文献   

This paper considers the classical independent private values model of auction theory in the presence of income taxation. We show that revenue equivalence remains valid if income taxes are proportional. Progressive and regressive taxes lead, in general, to asymmetries between bidders with the well-known consequence that revenue equivalence no longer holds. However, if symmetry of the bidders is maintained, progressive (regressive) income tax implies a higher (lower) expected revenue in first-price than in second-price auctions. Financial support by theDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft is gratefully acknowledge.  相似文献   

This essay foregrounds a dimension of Las Vegas that other authors only touch on in passing: its connections to empire. The authors propose a post‐imperial analysis of the city based on a reconstruction of its history and a reading of the traces of this history in the city's architecture and its self‐presentation in American popular culture. This analysis of Las Vegas as ruinopolis draws attention to the ruin sites of the city and its hinterland, reading them through the lens of empire. We work out the imperial territoriality of Las Vegas, including the derelict space of the Las Vegas Paiute Indian Colony, the ‘Pentagon Desert’ around the city with its so‐called ‘national sacrifice zone’, and the Strip, with Caesars Palace. We conclude with a post‐imperial reading of Venturi, Scott Brown and Izenour's canonical Learning from Las Vegas and of the ruin signs of the Neon Boneyard.  相似文献   

This paper formulates and estimates an economic model of landlord housing abandonment, using New York City data. A major focus of the study is to investigate the importance of property taxes in the abandonment decision, as opposed to such factors as the types of buildings or the characteristics of households occupying the neighborhood. There are two major results: first, cities can reduce the rate of abandonment by initiating foreclosure as soon as buildings go into arrears on property tax payments (rather than allowing a grace period), and second, property taxes are an important and significant determinant of abandonment rates. The benefits and costs of a policy whereby cities would systematically reduce property taxes in blighted neighborhoods by lowering assessment levels are also explored.  相似文献   

贾赟 《价值工程》2012,31(3):128
个人所得税的征收在现在社会备受关注,本文以我国现行的个人所得税法规为依据,从个人所得税筹划的思路出发,介绍了两个经典的个人所得税筹划案例,希望通过本文可以让读者在履行自身应尽纳税义务的同时,又能用合理合法的筹划手段来维护自身权益。  相似文献   

A theoretical and econometric model is specified which permits the estimation of the effect of local taxes on economic activity in a locality. A location elasticity of ?0.35 is found for manufacturing activity in New York City with respect to business taxes, while no significant elasticity is found for nonmanufacturing activity. The deadweight losses and revenue effects of the tax are analyzed and calculated, as are the optimal second-best taxes for a locality.  相似文献   

A belief that consumption taxation is inherently inequitable has been entrenched in a significant portion of the general public and was supported by early empirical evidence that suggested a highly regressive annual VAT incidence. However, it has been shown that much of the estimated annual VAT regressivity is due to the income under-reporting bias inherent in sample surveys. This bias is particularly important in emerging European countries due to a high shadow economy and the evasion of direct income taxes, which suggests household expenditures as a more meaningful indicator of well-being than registered income. Furthermore, theoretical considerations favor the lifetime incidence approach, whereby VAT is estimated to be proportional or mildly progressive. A micro-simulation analysis of the Serbian expenditure survey data yields incidence estimates in line with the existing literature from other countries. We show that a significant presence of own-source (small) farming production of food in many emerging European countries, including Serbia, presents an important progressivity-enhancing buffer compared to the VAT incidence in developed European countries. We conclude that the common beliefs of inherently inequitable VAT taxation are vastly overstated and poorly founded in the economic reality of emerging European countries such as Serbia, where VAT can be most adequately described as being mildly progressive.  相似文献   

The economic recession of 2007–09 had dramatic effects on spending on gambling and, therefore, on a number of major gaming companies, resulting in situations where cash flows were increasingly inadequate to service debt obligations. The recession thus interrupted growth trends in various segments of casino industries in America and Europe, which undermined future growth expectations and potential. This analysis examines economic events and other factors that have affected the casino industry in the last few years, and examines their implications for the future of casino and gaming markets in America and Europe.  相似文献   

William F. May 《Socio》1985,19(4):255-262
Perhaps with full-span lives the norm, people may have to learn how to be aged as they once had to learn to be adult. It may soon be necessary and legitimate to criticize the long years of vapidity in which a healthy elderly person does little more than eat and play bingo, or who consumes excessive amounts of drugs, or who expects a self-indulgent stupidity to go unchecked. Just as the old should be convinced that whatever happens during senescence, they will never suffer exclusion, so they should understand that age does not exempt them from being despicable. One of the most dreadful sights…is that of the long rows of women playing the Las Vegas slot machines. Had Dante heard of it he would have cleared a space for it in hell.  相似文献   

This paper investigates the effect of changes in payroll taxes on wages and employment in Argentina. The analysis, based on administrative data, focuses on the impact of a series of major changes in payroll taxes which varied across geographical areas. This setup offers two main advantages over previous studies. First, using longitudinal data, the variation in tax rates across space and time provides a plausible source of identification of their effects on employment and wages. Second, the use of legal tax rates for each area at each point in time provides a remedy for the measurement error bias raised by the use of empirical rates constructed from observed tax and wage bills. Once this bias is accounted for, the results indicate that changes in payroll tax rates are only partially shifted onto wages, and they point to the absence of any significant effect on employment.  相似文献   

国地税合并后,基层税务局依托海量数据优势,实现纳税服务信息化优化势在必行。以C区税务局为切入点,论文深入剖析基层税务局纳税服务信息化发展存在的问题,提出优化基层税务局纳税服务信息化发展的建议和措施,以期为基层税务局利用信息化优化纳税服务提供参考。  相似文献   

We analyze local jurisdictions’ behaviors when selecting the type of tax levied in support of local services. Our analysis focuses on taxes that must be approved by voters. Taxes differ in their incidence; thus, even when proposed revenue amounts are held constant, voting patterns and the aggregate level of voter support differ among potential revenue sources. We use a general model of political cost minimization to derive three hypotheses about local tax authorities’ behaviors. Using Ohio school district data, we find that the expected probability of passage is a highly important determinant of tax choice. Further, there is evidence that special interest groups wield influence greater than their direct impact on voting behavior, and evidence that tax authorities attempt to diversify their tax structure.  相似文献   

孟夏 《企业科技与发展》2009,(5):182-183,186
我国开征社会保障税的必要性包括:社会保障税可以有效解决我国社会保障筹资总量不足且保障水平低的问题;可以有效应对人口老龄化高峰给社会保障带来的巨大压力;建设现代公共财政及营造消费环境拉动经济增长的要求等。社会主义税收本质、国民对社会保障重要性的认识、现有的税收征管机构设置的管理能力,以及国外的社保税征收经验,都决定了我国开征社会保障税的可行性。  相似文献   

《Labour economics》2007,14(3):457-484
This paper examines the incidence of state unemployment insurance taxes on wages paid to workers in various demographic groups. The empirical work matches state level measures of unemployment insurance tax and benefit variables to data aggregated from the Current Population Survey on worker earnings for the period 1992 to 2002. Econometric evidence presented in the paper supports the paper's main hypothesis that UI tax rate structure has its greatest adverse impact on less mobile workers (prime age married women and young workers) and little impact on more mobile workers (prime age men).  相似文献   

Carbon Taxes and Carbon Emissions Trading   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
This paper surveys the literature on, and examples of current implementation of, carbon taxes and carbon emission permits. It sets out the theoretical basis for these instruments, with special reference to the revenue‐recycling and tax interaction effects. This theoretical work concludes that instruments which raise revenue which can be recycled so as to reduce pre‐existing distortionary taxes are significantly less costly than those which do not. The paper then reviews the sizable literature on the distributional effects of these instruments, especially with regard to industrial competitiveness and regressive effects on low‐income groups, evaluating attempts to mitigate these where they are perceived as unacceptable. The paper concludes that such efforts at mitigation, while possible, can substantially reduce the efficiency benefits of the instruments. The projected costs of carbon taxes depend on a wide range of assumptions. This is still a contested area, but the paper concludes that, on a range of plausible assumptions, these costs need not be high. Finally the paper notes that early evaluations of the environmental effectiveness of carbon taxes have been generally positive. This suggests that, if concern about anthropogenic climate change continues to increase, more countries will introduce carbon taxes and emission permits, with the latter increasingly auctioned.  相似文献   

Major tax reform to simplify the UK tax system is possible. Merging income taxes, social security taxes and corporation tax into only a single flat-rate of tax on all incomes would be a radical start. Avoiding taxes on income and expenditure which are 'too high' requires major reductions in government spending, mainly on the welfare state. Given the political will, over a period of years we really can hugely improve the UK tax system.  相似文献   

Abstract . The 1996 gambling referendum in Louisiana provided a unique opportunity to study voters' preferences. At the time of the referendum, video poker machines legally operated in all of Louisiana's 64 parishes (counties). Video poker was voted down in 31 parishes and retained in 33 parishes. Voters also allowed the New Orleans land‐based casino and 15 riverboat casinos to continue their operations. The extant horse racing and pari‐mutuel betting were not voted on. We examine the economic, demographic, and religious factors that influenced how people voted on the issue of legalized video poker. This study is of interest because in recent years, legalized gambling has been expanding around the world. We know of no other referendum on gambling that covered an area as large as an entire U.S. state—all of Louisiana—and offered voters control over gambling in their locality. Months before the 1996 referendum, the news media suggested several factors that might determine the outcome of the vote. The media concluded that concern over jobs would be the major influence on the outcome. Other important factors included a campaign against gambling by Southern Baptist churches and the simultaneous national presidential election. We investigate whether these factors, along with demographic factors such as age and education, influenced the results of the gambling referendum. Surprisingly, we found no clear evidence that the economic health of a parish or the preexisting size of its gambling industry determined the vote. The presence of Southern Baptists in a parish increased the likelihood that gambling would be voted down. Democratic voters tended to vote for gambling, as did black voters. Age and education levels of voters did not appear to influence their votes on gambling. Voters in parishes that bordered other states were more likely to retain gambling. Overall, it appeared that personal values were more important in determining voter behavior than financial considerations. People were voting with their hearts, not their pocketbooks.  相似文献   

Due to its unique political institutions and good economic track record, Switzerland used to be called a special case. This paper investigates the start-up propensities in this country based on the individual data of the adult population survey of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The focus is on the factors that are distinctive for Switzerland: language differences and differences in taxes on corporate profit and personal income. There are substantial entrepreneurship disparities among the language areas of Switzerland. Still, I do not find evidence for a cultural influence. The different start-up propensities in the three language areas can be explained by structural characteristics of the regional economy. The same applies to differences in income and profit taxes. If other regional factors are taken into account, I do not find evidence for a direct influence of taxes on the entrepreneurial propensity of the inhabitants of Swiss regions. There is however some evidence for indirect effects. This paper adds to our understanding of the effects of culture and tax differences on entrepreneurship.  相似文献   

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