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  • An increasing number of service organizations are developing thrift stores (or, second hand stores, charity shops) to raise resources to support their mission‐directed activities. Such stores seek donated merchandize…sell it …and use the proceeds to support their service efforts. The purpose of the study is to examine the processes by which thrift store donors: (a) determine that donation of pre‐owned merchandize is desirable, (b) get information about competing donation outlets, and (c) select which organization(s) are appropriate for their particular merchandize donation. A web survey was administered to assess these processes. The results will allow organizations to critically evaluate their existing thrift store practices against donor preferences in the interest of continuous improvement.
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   

LetX 1,X 2, …,X n(n ? 2) be a random sample on a random variablex with a continuous distribution functionF which is strictly increasing over (a, b), ?∞ ?a <b ? ∞, the support ofF andX 1:n ?X 2:n ? … ?X n:n the corresponding order statistics. Letg be a nonconstant continuous function over (a, b) with finiteg(a +) andE {g(X)}. Then for some positive integers, 1 <s ?n $$E\left\{ {\frac{1}{{s - 1}}\sum\limits_{i - 1}^{s - 1} {g(X_{i:n} )|X_{s:n} } = x} \right\} = 1/2(g(x) + g(a^ + )), \forall x \in (a,b)$$ iffg is bounded, monotonic and \(F(x) = \frac{{g(x) - g(a^ + )}}{{g(b^ - ) - g(a^ + )}},\forall x \in (a,b)\) . This leads to characterization of several distribution functions. A general form of this result is also stated.  相似文献   

Summary A branch and bound algorithm is given to solve the following problem: To each pair of elements (i,j) from a set X={l,…, n} a number rij with rij≥ 0, rij=rij and rij= 0 has been assigned. Find a prescribed number of disjoint subsets P1…,Pm from X, such that Experiments indicate that an optimal solution is usually found in a small number of iterations, but the verification may be rather time consuming. The algorithm may be used to find the minimum value of m for which a partitioning of X with z= 0 exists. The algorithm appears to be efficient for finding this ‘chromatic number of a graph’.  相似文献   

We present a new type of Artificial Neural Networks: the Self-Reflexive Networks. We utter the theoretical presuppositions; their dynamics is analogous to the one ascribed to autopoietic systems: self-referentiality, unsupervised learning and unintentionally cooperative and contractual activities of their own units. We also hypothesize a new concept of perception. We present the basic equations of Self-Reflexive Networks, new concepts as the one of dynamic target, of Re-entry with dedicated and fixed connections, of Meta-Units. Therefore, we experiment a specific type of Self-Reflexive Networks, the Monodedicated, within the interpretation of a toy-DB and we have hinted at other already made experimentations, experimentations in process and planned experimentations. From the applicative work that we present a few specifics and novelties of this type of Neural Networks emerge:
  1. the capability of answering to complex, strange, wrong or not precise questions, through the same algorithms through which the learning phase took place.
  2. the capability of spontaneously transforming their own learning inaccuracy in analogic capability and original self-organization capability.
  3. the capability of spontaneously integrate the models that it experienced in different moments in an achronical hyper-model.
  4. the capability of behaving as it had explored a decisions graph of large dimensions, both deeply and in extension. With the consequence of behaving as an Addressing Memory forself-dynamic Contents.
  5. the capability of always learning, rapidly and anyway, besides the complexity of the learning patterns.
  6. the capability of answering simultaneously from different points of view, behaving, in this case, as a network that builds more similarity models for each vector-stimulus that it receives.
  7. the capability of adjusting in a biunivocal way, each question to the consulting DB and each DB to the question that are submitted. The consequence of this fact is the continuous creation of new answering models.
  8. the capability of building during the learning phase, a weights matrix that provides a subconceptual representation of the bi-directional relations between each couple of input variables.
  9. the capability, through the Metaunits, to integrate in a unitary typology, nodes with different saturation speed and, therefore, with different memory: in fact, while the SR units are short memory nodes, since each new stumulus zeros the previous stimulus, the Metaunits memorize the SR different stimulus during time, functioning as an average length memory. This fact should confirm that the avarage length memory is of a different level from the immediate memory and that it is based only uponrelation among perceptive stimulus which are distributed in parallel and in sequence. In this context the weights matrix constitute the SR long term memory. And in this sense it will be opportune to think at a methodic through which the Metaunits can influence during time, the same weights matrix. In any case, in the SR there areservice nodes orfilter nodes andlearning nodes as if they were weights (the Metaunits).

In recent years, it has become common to represent entrepreneurs as either necessity- or opportunity-driven. Drawing upon face-to-face interviews in England with 70 entrepreneurs trading wholly or partially off-the-books, this paper evaluates critically this dichotomous representation. The finding is that squeezing the motives of off-the-books entrepreneurs into one side or the other of this dichotomy not only over-simplifies their rationales since both necessity and opportunity motives are often involved but also obfuscates how their motives change over time. The outcome is a call to replace this either/or depiction with a richer and more nuanced both/and understanding of off-the-books entrepreneurs that recognises their diverse and dynamic motives.
Colin C. WilliamsEmail:

In the paper, we consider the following problem: Let {πk} be a sequence satisfying 0πkΣ1 (k=1,…, N) and π=n.Tben, is there an unordered sampling design such that, for each k=1,…N, the inclusion probability of unit k is equal to π? It is shown that it can be solved by the straightforward application of the Minkowski-Farkas theorem.  相似文献   

Long a site for incessant worry, revision or redemption, it is unclear what the ‘city' is today. Yet, in face of the near‐apocalyptic readjustments potentiated by human‐engineered global warming, there is an exigency about getting cities to function right. It is no wonder, then, that contemporary theories of cities and urbanization attempt to restore some common sense, to get to the heart of critical matters in a world where urbanization disrupts once‐normative assumptions about the nature of territory, scale and politics. But what is the nature of that ‘common sense'? How does one engage the very concrete efforts that constructed the city, with all the layers of physical and cultural memory that new regimes usually attempt to cover up, and all that the city does not show, either because its inhabitants are prohibited from paying attention or because whatever is considered normative or spectacular in city life has to get rid of the messy labor and politics that brought it about? Invoking blackness as an analytical method, these questions are addressed through thinking about how long histories of urban practices deployed by black residents of cities across the world might challenge and reinvent the sense of an urban commons.
‘Living just enough, just enough for the city…' Stevie Wonder (1973)

The literature on neighbor designs as introduced by Rees (Biometrics 23:779–791, 1967) is mainly devoted to construction methods, providing few results on their statistical properties, such as efficiency and optimality. A review of the available literature, with special emphasis on the optimality of neighbor designs under various fixed effects interference models, is given in Filipiak and Markiewicz (Commun Stat Theory Methods 46:1127–1143, 2017). The aim of this paper is to verify whether the designs presented by Filipiak and Markiewicz (2017) as universally optimal under fixed interference models are still universally optimal under models with random interference effects. Moreover, it is shown that for a specified covariance matrix of random interference effects, a universally optimal design under mixed interference models with block effects is universally optimal over a wider class of designs. In this paper the method presented by Filipiak and Markiewicz (Metrika 65:369–386, 2007) is extended and then applied to mixed interference models without or with block effects.  相似文献   

Protection against obesity discrimination is extremely limited under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). No obese plaintiff has won using the actual disability theory, but a few have won under the perceived disability theory. Weight-related appearance standards are legal. We estimate weight-based wage penalties for young men and women. We find that mildly obese (20% over standard weight) white women experience greater wage penalties than black men experience for weight that is 100% over standard weight. Men do not experience wage penalties until their weight exceeds standard weight by over 100 lb. A gender-plus analysis under Title VII is more appropriate than the ADA for addressing the weight-based wage penalties that women experience.  相似文献   

Conclusions The primary objective of this paper has been to provide a broadened framework for combining economic and demographic planning in a way which is also consistent with planning and accounting models developed and employed by both demographers and economists. In addition we also want to have this same framework available for extension to other types of multi-dimensional social-economic planning possibilities. One set of such examples may be found in the work by Stone [28], Wilson and Rees [34] and the United Nations' current program for developing systems of social and demographic accounts for possible use in new and improved approaches to country development planning. Another example, which, though broader, is also somewhat more theoretical may be found in [25] where explixit use is made of the E matrix for linking economic and demographic dimensions in planning applications.In this paper we have focused on Leontief-type analyses, extended to provide demographic linkages, because we want to adapt some of the sharper concepts of economics (e.g., Pareto optimality) to provide additional assistance for guiding and coordinating eco-demographic planning interactions. To be sure, such concepts are of interest in their own right, as when, say, an improvement in conditions for fulfilling career aspirations may cause a wrosening in one or more components of final demand. They are also of interest for other reasons as well. In particular they are of interest as an alternative to only empirical extrapolations or predictions for long range plans especially when, as we show here, they can yield relatively stable guides for longer range plans.The idea, of course, is to utilize these stable patterns in relatively flexible ways and not for the purpose of only imposing a supposedly coherent regimen on all subsequent activities in an economy-or other such social unit. This means that some idea of the significance of these guidelines and their potential alterations must also be available. It is to this end that our kind of theoretical underpinning is supplied. On the one hand, it provides access to a well thought over body of concepts, e.g., from the main body of welfare economics. On the other hand, it supplies access to manipulative and computational power which is readily available from demographic as well as economic analysis in ways that can be readily implemented via modern electronic computational facilities, etc.Other extensions are also in order, of course, and may be effected via stochastic formulations to deal with items like labor turnover and considerations of inter-sectoral and occupational mobility and employment. Growth and other phenomena which relate to demographic as well as economic dimensions will also need to be essayed but these are best left aside for subsequent treatments which can consider them separately with more explicit attention to other quality of life dimensions to which they are evidently related25.  相似文献   

It is typically assumed that people engage in entrepreneurship because there are profits to be made. In contrast to this view, this paper argues that entrepreneurship is more adequately characterized as a non-profit-seeking activity. Evidence from a broad range of authors and academic fields is discussed showing that entrepreneurship does quite generally not pay in monetary terms. Being an entrepreneur seems to be rather rewarding because it entails substantial non-monetary benefits, like greater autonomy, broader skill utilization, and the possibility to pursue one’s own ideas. It is shown how incorporating these non-monetary benefits into economic models of entrepreneurship can lead to a better understanding of the phenomenon.
Matthias BenzEmail:

Let a1,…,an be a finite sequence of n real numbers. A subset {i1,…,ir} of the set {1,…,n } is called a balancing subset for a1,…,an if ai1 + … + air = 0. We discuss in this paper the maximum number of balancing subsets for given n.  相似文献   

Abstract . Economic cartel theory and Sociological social movement theory are used to achieve a socio-economic analysis of the problems and behaviour of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). It is demonstrated that both cartel theory and social movement theory predict substantially similar behavior on the part of the NCAA and its 800-plus member institutions. Specific issues such as “need”scholarships, the possibility that the” big-time”football powers, may leave the NCAA, and the NCAA's relation with women's athletics, are considered. It is concluded that the NCAA is not likely to persist is an organization in its current form.
“… the NCAA is a body primarily designed to protect and defend its member institutions from the professional sports world and to make sure that collegiate sports get its share of the sports business pie.” Senator Marlow Cook of Kentucky (1973)

本研究采用实验的方法挖掘广告调节聚焦信息对消费者非欺诈性仿冒奢侈品购买意愿的影响机理。研究结果表明,奢侈品广告信息对消费者仿冒奢侈品购买意愿的影响受消费者自尊水平的调节:对于高自尊的消费者,当广告信息为预防聚焦时,其仿冒奢侈品的购买意愿更低;对于低自尊的消费者,广告调节聚焦信息对其仿冒奢侈品购买意愿的影响不显著。广告信息对消费者仿冒奢侈品购买意愿的影响还受消费者从众倾向的调节:对于低从众倾向的消费者,当广告信息为预防聚焦时,其仿冒奢侈品的购买意愿更低;对于高从众倾向的消费者,广告调节聚焦信息对其仿冒奢侈品购买意愿的影响不显著。  相似文献   

In the last few years, companies have paid growing attention to the management of their supply chain at a global level. The need for better suppliers, international competition and research of specific competences have forced companies to improve their ability to cope with suppliers and customers located in different countries around the world. This paper aims to provide an overview of how manufacturing companies use global supply chains and how their behaviour changes over time. Longitudinal data from a sample of companies from the last two editions of the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) are used. A contingent analysis of manufacturing localization and globalization is also considered in order to identify factors influencing supply chain globalization strategies. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi:) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Gianluca SpinaEmail:

  • People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect).
  • In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of Utrecht University, The Netherlands. First name and surname initials, fields of education, and association memberships of alumni were matched to those of students soliciting contributions in the phonaton.
  • Female alumni with first names and fields of study similar to those of solicitors were more likely to donate, as were male alumni with first names similar to the field of study of solicitors. Both male and female alumni with first names similar to the name of the university donated more often than those with dissimilar names.
  • Name letter effects are a cheap and effective instrument to increase donations in fundraising campaigns conducted by telephone.
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   

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