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Value-at-risk (VaR) has become the standard criterion for assessing risk in the financial industry. Given the widespread usage of VaR, it becomes increasingly important to study the effects of VaR based risk management on the prices of stocks and options. We solve a continuous-time asset pricing model, based on Lucas (1978) and Basak and Shapiro (2001), to investigate these effects. We find that the presence of risk managers tends to reduce market volatility, as intended. However, in some cases VaR risk management undesirably raises the probability of extreme losses. Finally, we demonstrate that option prices in an economy with VaR risk managers display a volatility smile.  相似文献   

This paper examines the economic value of overnight information to users of risk management models. In addition to the information revealed by overseas markets that trade during the (domestic) overnight period, this paper exploits information generated via recent innovations in the structure of financial markets. In particular, certain securities (and associated derivative products) can now be traded at any time over a 24-h period. As such, it is now possible to make use of information generated by trading, in (almost) identical securities, during the overnight period. Of the securities that are available over such time periods, S&P 500 related products are by far the most actively traded and are, therefore, the subject of this paper. Using a variety of conditional volatility models that allow time-dependent information flow within (and across) three different S&P 500 markets, the results show that overnight information flow has a significant impact on the conditional volatility of daytime traded S&P 500 securities. Moreover (time-consistent) forecasts from models that incorporate overnight information are shown to have economic value to risk managers. In particular, Value-at-Risk (VaR) models based on these conditional volatility models are shown to be more accurate than VaR models that ignore overnight information.  相似文献   

The potential for stock market growth in Asian Pacific countries has attracted foreign investors. However, higher growth rates come with higher risk. We apply value at risk (VaR) analysis to measure and analyze stock market index risks in Asian Pacific countries, exposing and detailing both the unique risks and system risks embedded in those markets. To implement the VaR measure, it is necessary to perform "volatility modeling" by mixture switch, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), or generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models. After estimating the volatility parameters, we can calibrate the VaR values of individual and system risks. Empirically, we find that, on average, Indonesia and Korea exhibit the highest VaRs and VaR sensitivity, and currently, Australia exhibits relatively low values. Taiwan is liable to be in high-state volatility. In addition, the Kupiec test indicates that the mixture switch VaR is superior to delta normal VaR; the quadratic probability score (QPS) shows that the EWMA is inclined to underestimate the VaR for a single series, and GARCH shows no difference from GARCH t and GARCH generalized error distribution (GED) for a multivariate VaR estimate with more assets.  相似文献   

Asset managers are often given the task of restricting their activity by keeping both the value at risk (VaR) and the tracking error volatility (TEV) under control. However, these constraints may be impossible to satisfy simultaneously because VaR is independent of the benchmark portfolio. The management of these restrictions is likely to affect portfolio performance and produces a wide variety of scenarios in the risk-return space. The aim of this paper is to analyse various interactions between portfolio frontiers when risk managers impose joint restrictions upon TEV and VaR. Specifically, we provide analytical solutions for all the intersections and we propose simple numerical methods when such solutions are not available. Finally, we introduce a new portfolio frontier.  相似文献   

Academic research has highlighted the inherent flaws within the RiskMetrics model and demonstrated the superiority of the GARCH approach in-sample. However, these results do not necessarily extend to forecasting performance. This paper seeks answer to the question of whether RiskMetrics volatility forecasts are adequate in comparison to those obtained from GARCH models. To answer the question stock index data is taken from 31 international markets and subjected to two exercises, a straightforward volatility forecasting exercise and a Value-at-Risk exceptions forecasting competition. Our results provide some simple answers to the above question. When forecasting volatility of the G7 stock markets the APARCH model, in particular, provides superior forecasts that are significantly different from the RiskMetrics models in over half the cases. This result also extends to the European markets with the APARCH model typically preferred. For the Asian markets the RiskMetrics model performs well, and is only significantly dominated by the GARCH models for one market, although there is evidence that the APARCH model provides a better forecast for the larger Asian markets. Regarding the Value-at-Risk exercise, when forecasting the 1% VaR the RiskMetrics model does a poor job and is typically the worst performing model, again the APARCH model does well. However, forecasting the 5% VaR then the RiskMetrics model does provide an adequate performance. In short, the RiskMetrics model only performs well in forecasting the volatility of small emerging markets and for broader VaR measures.  相似文献   

Conditional VaR using EVT - Towards a planned margin scheme   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
This paper constructs a robust Value-at-Risk (VaR) measure for the Indian stock markets by combining two well-known facts about equity return time series — dynamic volatility resulting in the well-recognized phenomenon of volatility clustering, and non-normality giving rise to fat tails of the return distribution. While the phenomenon of volatility dynamics has been extensively studied using GARCH model and its many relatives, the application of Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is relatively recent in tracking extreme losses in the study of risk measurement. There are recent applications of Extreme Value Theory to estimate the unexpected losses due to extreme events and hence modify the current methodology of VaR. Extreme value theory (EVT) has been used to analyze financial data showing clear non-normal behavior. We combine the two methodologies to come up with a robust model with much enhanced predictive abilities. A robust model would obviate the need for imposing special ad hoc margins by the regulator in times of extreme volatility. A rule based margin system would increase efficiency of the price discovery process and also the market integrity with the regulator no longer seen as managing volatility.  相似文献   

Recent evidence suggests shifts (structural breaks) in the volatility of returns causes non‐normality by significantly increasing kurtosis. In this paper, we endogenously detect significant shifts in the volatility of oil prices and incorporate this information to estimate Value‐at‐Risk (VaR) to accurately forecast large declines in oil prices. Our out‐of‐sample performance results indicate that the model, which incorporates both time varying volatility (without making any distributional assumptions) and shifts in volatility, produces more accurate VaR forecasts than several benchmark methods. We make a timely contribution as the recent more frequent occurrences of unexpected large oil price declines has gained significant attention because of its substantial impact on the financial markets and the global economy.  相似文献   

林宇 《投资研究》2012,(1):41-56
本文在金融市场典型事实约束下,运用ARFIMA模型对金融市场条件收益率建模,运用GARCH、GJR、FIGARCH、APARCH、FIAPARCH等5种模型对金融波动率进行建模,进而运用极值理论(EVT)对标准收益的极端尾部风险建模来测度各股市的动态风险,并用返回测试(Back-testing)方法检验模型的适应性。实证结果表明,总的来说,FIAPARCH-EVT模型对各个市场具有较强的适应性,风险测度能力较为优越。进一步,本文在ARFIMA-FIAPARCH模型下,假定标准收益分别服从正态分布(N)、学生t分布(st)、有偏学生t分布(skst)、广义误差分布(GED)共4种分布,对各股市的动态风险测度的准确性进行检验,并和EVT方法的测度结果进行对比分析。结果表明,EVT方法风险测度能力优于其他方法,有偏学生t分布假设下的风险测度模型虽然略逊于EVT方法,但也不失为一种较好的方法;ARFIMA-FI-APARCH-EVT不仅在中国大陆沪深股市表现最为可靠,而且在其他市场也表现出同样的可靠性。  相似文献   

In this paper we study both the level of Value-at-Risk (VaR) disclosure and the accuracy of the disclosed VaR figures for a sample of US and international commercial banks. To measure the level of VaR disclosures, we develop a VaR Disclosure Index that captures many different facets of market risk disclosure. Using panel data over the period 1996–2005, we find an overall upward trend in the quantity of information released to the public. We also find that Historical Simulation is by far the most popular VaR method. We assess the accuracy of VaR figures by studying the number of VaR exceedances and whether actual daily VaRs contain information about the volatility of subsequent trading revenues. Unlike the level of VaR disclosure, the quality of VaR disclosure shows no sign of improvement over time. We find that VaR computed using Historical Simulation contains very little information about future volatility.  相似文献   

The effect of heavy tails due to rare events and different levels of asymmetry associated with high volatility clustering in the emerging financial markets requires sophisticated models for statistical modelling of such stylized facts. This article applies extreme value theory (EVT) to quantify tail risk on the daily returns of Mexican stock market under aggregation of foreign exchange rate risk from January 1971 to December 2010. This study focuses on the maximum-block method and generalized extreme value distribution (GEVD) to model the asymptotic behavior of extreme returns in US dollars. The empirical results show that EVT-Based VaR measured at high confidence levels performs better than simulation historical and delta-normal VaR models on capturing fat-tails in the returns of highly volatile stock markets. Additionally, international investors holding long positions in Mexican stock market are more prone to experience larger potential losses than investors with short positions during local currency depreciation and financial crisis periods.  相似文献   

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