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New Zealand's current account of the balance of payments has been persistently in deficit since the early 1970s and increased markedly during the late 1990s. Should this cause significant concern, for such a small, cyclically volatile open economy? Our results show that VAR1 and VAR2 forms of the traditional intertemporal consumption-smoothing model reflect very satisfactorily the volatile directions and turning points observed, that the data are not consistent with consumption-tilting to the present, and that New Zealand has had considerable success to date in consumption-smoothing around its average 5% current account deficit. Perhaps more unexpectedly, a Bergin–Sheffrin-type model of a small open economy with variable interest rates and exchange rates has not performed noticeably better.  相似文献
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自20世纪80年代起,家庭户之间的风险分担作为平滑消费、分散风险的主要方式之一被广泛的研究.自此发展经济学正式将收入风险作为个人陷入贫困的主要原因.文章追溯了风险分担的理论发源,回顾早期实证检验以及最新研究动向,并且在综述国内研究的基础上对未来的研究方向进行了展望.  相似文献
3.
Many intertemporal open economy macro models imply a theory of consumption smoothing channels; thus we build an empirical model to analyze the intertemporal smoothing role of saving components (fixed investments, inventories and trade balance) through the use of VAR impulse responses to different types of shocks. We find that for the OECD countries the bulk of intertemporal smoothing has been carried out domestically, via gross fixed investments and inventories, but the trade balance has also played a relevant – albeit volatile – smoothing role. We also characterize the dynamic behavior of each component: the trade balance and inventories are mostly used as short-run smoothing tools while fixed investment provides more and more smoothing over time. We can also address some empirical puzzles, such as the “excess sensitivity of investment” anomaly (Glick, R., Rogoff, K., 1995. Global versus country-specific productivity shocks and the current account. Journal of Monetary Economics, 35, 159–192) and the “saving-investment correlation puzzle” (Feldstein, M., Horioka, C., 1980. Domestic saving and international capital flows. Economic Journal, 90, 314–329).  相似文献
4.
应用我国1985~2011年的省级数据,构建面板数据模型实证分析了城镇家庭消费的风险分担和跨期平滑情况。研究结果显示:我国城镇家庭消费的跨期平滑是不完全的。无论是从我国整体情况来看,还是从不同地区或者不同收入组家庭来考察,城镇家庭消费的跨期平滑系数γ均介于0~1之间。此外,城镇家庭消费的风险分担程度很低,消费风险分担机制很不完善。进一步的分析显示:各个地区内部和不同收入组内部的风险分担系数要高于全国总体的风险分担系数,这说明我国城镇家庭在进行消费风险分担时具有显著的“本地偏好”和“阶层效应”。  相似文献
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We investigate the development of household labor income, financial wealth, and asset holdings over a 9‐year period around job loss, using unique administrative panel data from Norway. Consistent with predictions from theory, the data show additional saving and a shift toward safer assets in the years leading up to unemployment, and depletion of savings after job loss. In the years after job loss, the households' after‐tax labor income is reduced by about USD 12,500. Over the same time period, households deplete USD 3,000 of their financial assets, of which one third is accumulated prior to the job loss. This suggests that at least some households can foresee and prepare for the upcoming unemployment, which indicates that private savings can, to some extent, serve as a substitute for publicly provided unemployment insurance.  相似文献
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Liquidity constraints have been proposed as an important explanation for deviations from the rational expectations/permanent income hypothesis. This paper introduces to the liquidity constraint literature the ratio of a household's debt payments to its disposable personal income, the debt service ratio (DSR). We find that a household with a high DSR is significantly more likely to be turned down for credit than other households. Also, the consumption growth of likely constrained households, identified using the DSR along with the liquid‐asset‐to‐income ratio, is significantly more sensitive to past income than that of other households, confirming the DSR's value in identifying constrained households.  相似文献
7.
This paper develops a method to estimate jointly the degree of intertemporal consumption smoothing and the degree of “inter‐regional” risk sharing. The empirical results for the U.S. states and OECD and EU countries suggest that: (i) regardless of the assumption on the degree of intertemporal consumption smoothing, the degree of risk sharing within a country is larger than across countries; (ii) the degree of intertemporal consumption smoothing within a country is also larger than across countries; and (iii) the difference between the degree of intertemporal consumption smoothing within U.S. states and across OECD and EU countries is as large as the difference between the degree of risk sharing, contrary to the findings of some past studies.  相似文献
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