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1.
构建融资企业声誉机制的博弈分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
融资企业与投资者的博弈是重复博弈.重复博弈所包含的投资者对融资企业选择欺骗行为惩罚的可置信威胁,使融资企业具有塑造声誉的积极性,其基础是产权制度安排.据此,提出构建我国融资企业声誉机制的措施,就国有融资企业而言,在于明晰其产权,塑造人格化的产权主体,并进行产权交易;就民营企业而言,在于对其产权实行有效保护.  相似文献
2.
Weighted repeat sales house price indices have become one of the primary indicators used to identify housing market conditions and to estimate the amount of equity homeowners have gained through house price appreciation. The primary reason for the acceptance of this methodology is that it derives a location specific (typically, census division, state or metropolitan area) average change in house prices from repeated observations of individual house prices. It is this repeat attribute that allows repeat sales price indices to claim that it is a preferable index which does a better job of holding quality constant. The amount of time between the two observed prices for a single property is determined by when the home transacts. Some homes transact twice in a period of months and others do not transact for decades. It is likely that individual house price appreciation rates vary from the mean appreciation rate, as estimated by the index, in a systematic fashion. In general, the longer the time between transactions the more variance there is in individual house price appreciation. This paper extends this concept to include new dimensions. For instance, houses that appreciate faster than the mean, as estimated by the index for that location, may experience a different variation structure than homes that appreciate slower. This process can be viewed as an asymmetric treatment of the variance of house price appreciation around the estimated index. In addition, the variance of expensive and affordable homes may also be different and time varying. This paper finds evidence that adding the dimensions of price tiers and asymmetry to the variance estimate has merit and does affect the estimated index as well as homeowner equity estimates. Homeowner equity estimates are especially sensitive to these added dimensions because they depend on both the revised index and the estimated variances, which are specific to each dimension considered—time between transaction, asymmetry, and price tier.  相似文献
3.
Aggregation Bias in Repeat-Sales Indices   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The repeat-sales methodology has become a standard approach for estimating real estate price indices. This article examines the underlying assumptions inherent in the repeat sales model and provides an empirical test for both included and omitted variables as sources of aggregation bias. The results indicate that virtually all price indices may be biased, the degree of bias being dependent upon the number of variables examined and the instability of their parameters over time.  相似文献
4.
The single family home in the investment portfolio   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
This article uses recent measures of the risk and return to investment in housing to estimate the effects of including a single family home in the investor portolio. We estimate the expected return and standard deviation of that return, as well as its correlation with other major investment classes.  相似文献
5.
The accuracy of real estate indices: Repeat sale estimators   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
Simulation techniques allow us to examine the behavior and accuracy of several repeat sales regression estimators used to construct real estate return indices. We show that the generalized least squares (GLS) method is the maximum likelihood estimator, and we show how estimation accuracy can be significantly improved through a Baysian approach. In addition, we introduce a biased estimation procedure based upon the James and Stein method to address the problems of multicollinearity common to the procedure.  相似文献
6.
This article examines a number of hypotheses that underpin the repeat-sales and hedonic approaches to the construction of housing price indices, as well as the practical problems associated with the implementation of either approach. We also examine a hybrid procedure that combines elements of both the repeat-sales and hedonic-regression techniques. For our sample of individual home sales in Oakland and Fremont California over an 18-year period, repeat-sales methods are subject to sample selection bias; the maintained assumption of time constancy of implicit prices of housing attributes is violated; the repeat-sales estimator is extremely sensitive to influential observations; and the usual method used to correct for heteroskedasticity in repeat-sale housing returns is inappropriate in our sample. Hedonic techniques are better suited to contend with index number problems per se, as they can accommodate changing attribute prices over time. They also appear to give rise to more reliable estimates of price indices, as unusual observations have less effect on estimated price indices. Drawbacks of the hedonic approach include the usual concern with omitted attributes, and their effect on the estimated price index.  相似文献
7.
Adjusting for Non-Linear Age Effects in the Repeat Sales Index   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A true constant quality real estate price index should measure the general change in price level free from any change in quality over time. In recent years, the repeat-sales method has been widely used to construct constant quality property price indices. Since buildings depreciate over time, a simple repeat-sales index would underestimate the growth in property prices. The major problem of controlling the effects of age constant in a repeat-sales model arises from the exact multicollinearity between the age variable and the time dummy variables. In this study, we derive a solution that is theoretically sound and practical by allowing the age effects to be non-linear. In case of leasehold properties, we further incorporated interest rates into the model because the effects of age on real estate prices depend theoretically on interest rates. A sample of residential units in Hong Kong sold more than once from Quarter 2 of 1991 to Quarter 1 of 2001 (more than 11,000 repeat sales pairs) are used for the empirical analysis.  相似文献
8.
基于心理契约的网络消费者重复购买意向实证研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
网络营销情景下,消费者在进行购买决策时对心理和情感层面的感知依存度很高,通过对消费者交易心理契约、关系心理契约与感知风险、网络信息以及重复购买行为之间的关系假设,并对这些变量进行分别测量的关系验证后发现,关系心理契约主要通过影响消费者的网络信任来影响重复购买意向,而交易心理契约尽管同样主要是通过网络信任来影响重复购买行为意向,但其对网络信任的影响度要低于关系心理契约。从这一点来看,加强关系营销是提高网络营销效果的重要途径。  相似文献
9.
This paper describes the development of a house price index that has been introduced in May 2005 in The Netherlands. This monthly index, called Woningwaarde Index Kadaster (House Price Index Kadaster), is designed to detect changes in the price of the overall stock of owner-occupied homes. Fifty-five indices are calculated: one overall index, four regional indices, 12 provincial indices and 38 indices based on combinations of region/province and dwelling type. We used Case and Shiller’s geometric Weighted Repeat Sales Model to calculate monthly house price indices. We used recorded data on the sales of over 500,000 owner-occupied homes in The Netherlands, all representing repeat sales between January 1993 and December 2006. The accuracy of the index was determined using the 95% confidence interval. We observed that accuracy might become a problem in smaller sub samples. Revision volatility was explored by comparing the index values computed from all available data until December 2005 with the index values computed from the data available until December 2006. Our analysis showed that revision volatility does not seem to be a major problem to the index. We also explored heteroskedasticity in the Repeat Sales method but did not find conclusive evidence for the proposed heteroskedasticity. Given our target (a geometric mean index value) and the characteristics of the dataset (very large but without property characteristics) the Repeat Sales Method seems to be adequate for calculating a house price index for The Netherlands.
P. J. BoelhouwerEmail:
  相似文献
10.
我国农村信贷关系的博弈分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在财政支农和正规放贷额度已存在较大制约的情况下,商业性金融在农村的发展至关重要。本文对农村金融信贷关系博弈的研究表明,在信贷交易成本和贷款利率降低的情况下,金融机构和农户的无限次重复博弈可以实现信贷博弈的长期均衡,而这需要以较高的规模效益水平为前提;声誉制约机制可以最大限度地降低农村金融中的信息不对称问题,从而能够部分克服双方信用关系中的"囚徒困境"难题。农业生产的不确定性决定了政策性金融和财政补贴的重要性,商业性金融和政策性金融需要区分对待。  相似文献
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