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1.
Suppressing resistance to low-skill migration   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Just like any other trade activity, migration tends to generate gains to all parties involved, the migrants as well as the native population, if markets are well-functioning. But typically these gains tend to be rather small. However, when the labor market is mal-functioning, migration may exacerbate the imperfections in the market. Consequently, it could lead to losses to the host-country population, which can be quite sizable.An additional problem raised by migration is the toll it imposes on the welfare state. As a democracy, the host-country cannot exclude migrants from various entilement programs and public services. As a consequence, the modern welfare state could find it more and more costly to run its various programs when they attract low-income migrants.These considerations may help explain why there is strong resistance to migration. Consequently, to be able to benefit from migration, one may want to improve the functioning of the markets (with a compensation to wage earners that compete with unskilled migrants) and to downsize the scope of the state entitlement programs.The current version was prepared while the first author was visiting the Research Department and the second author was visiting the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund.  相似文献
2.
The role of proportional and procyclic labor income taxes for automatic stabilization with stochastic productivity is analyzed in a contemporary macroeconomic model based on imperfect competition. The importance of short-run nominal wage rigidity for the effectiveness of progressive taxes on labor income for stabilizing output and raising household welfare is examined in a model that yields complete analytical solutions with stochastic output shocks. Increasing the procyclicity of labor income tax rates raises welfare with and without rigid nominal wages in the model economy. With fully flexible prices and wages, a positive covariance between the distortionary tax rate and productivity reduces the volatility of production and employment. This effect disappears under nominal wage rigidity, although progressive taxation can still raise welfare by reducing the distortion caused by a proportional labor tax. With rigid nominal wages and flexible consumer goods prices, payroll taxes levied at rates that rise with output can serve as automatic stabilizers. JEL Code E62 · H20  相似文献
3.
The growth rates of wages, unemployment and output of a number of OECD countries have a strongly skewed distribution. In this paper we analyze to what extent downward wage rigidities can explain these empirical business cycle asymmetries. To this aim, we introduce asymmetric wage adjustment costs in a New-Keynesian DSGE model with search and matching frictions in the labor market. Increasing wages is less costly than cutting them. It follows that wages increase relatively fast and thus limit vacancy posting and employment creation, but they decline more slowly, leading to a strong reduction in vacancies and employment. The presence of downward wage rigidities strongly improves the fit of the model to the observed skewness of labor market variables and the relative length of expansions and contractions in the output and the employment cycles. The asymmetry also explains the differing transmission of positive and negative monetary policy shocks from wages to inflation.  相似文献
4.
Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in accounting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage rigidity in the data.  相似文献
5.
We examine the economic effects of barriers to entry on the association between foreign currency translation adjustments and the stock returns of multinational firms operating in the manufacturing and service industries. Firms that are innovation leaders, that is, firms that are research and development (R&D) intensive and firms with high foreign asset intensity (i.e., asset-intensive firms), are our proxies for firms operating in environments with barriers to entry (i.e., environments in which competition is less intense). We hypothesize and find that foreign currency translation adjustments are positively associated with abnormal stock returns for firms operating in environments with barriers to entry in both manufacturing and service industries. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the valuation-relevance of foreign currency translation adjustments by considering the economic contexts of foreign currency movements. Overall, the evidence shows that the accounting rules governing foreign currency translations generally produce results consistent with the economic effects of foreign exchange rate changes.  相似文献
6.
“刚性兑付”的信托业潜规则促进了信托业的爆发式增长。然而,随着行业规模不断扩大,兑付风险事件陆续出现,“刚性兑付”日渐成为信托业发展的桎梏。尽管拥有诸多打破“刚性兑付”的理由,但受各方利益既得者打破动力不足的影响,行动十分迟缓。在压力与动力并存之下,打破“刚性兑付”势在必行。  相似文献
7.
2014年7月8日,中国信托业协会发布了《中国信托业发展报告(2013-2014)》,《报告》称,困扰信托业多年的“刚性兑付”问题已经开始显现负面作用。但根据68家信托公司发布的2013年年报,对兜底问题仅陕国投一家信托公司做出了相关表述。信托公司的刚性兑付具有隐蔽性的特点,不利于金融管理政策的制定实施和信托市场的健康发展。本文对信托公司“刚性兑付”的手段和潜在风险进行梳理,并提出建议,以期对逐步打破“刚性兑付”有所裨益。  相似文献
8.
本文从理论和实证两个角度分析了我国民生保障支出对居民消费的影响。一方面,本文通过描绘消费者的消费模式图,指出阶段性"大额刚性支出"的存在抑制了居民消费水平的提高;另一方面,我国现行的财政分权体制和官员激励制度促进政府投资,挤压居民消费。在此理论基础上,文章构建了居民消费与收入、民生支出的计量模型。本文以1978—2011年的相关数据,分别进行单位根检验、协整、向量误差修正模型、格兰杰因果关系检验等深入分析了民生支出对居民消费的影响。理论和实证结果均表明,政府增加民生保障投入能够促进居民消费。  相似文献
9.
欧洲政府债务比重长期偏高的国家表现出高社会保障和福利支出比重、高社会养老保障支出比重、高公共养老金替代率和再分配功能偏低的"三高一低"特征,而这在很大程度上源于社会养老保障及其改革的刚性。因此,中国应该从长经济周期的视角来协调保障与经济发展的关系,当前社会保障建设则要适当滞后于经济发展,同时,建立多层次的退休金支付结构,强化基础养老金"保基本"的横向再分配功能,并构建养老金关键参数的弹性调整机制。  相似文献
10.
近年来,随着我国经济的快速增长和城市化进程的不断深入,我国出现了房价过快上涨的势头。高房价背后有着各种成因,抵押贷款证券化在解决高房价问题上具有合理性和可行性,保持审慎、稳健的监管,通过合理的金融市场建设和金融资源分配,房地产市场能够回归理性,房价回归正常合理的水平。  相似文献
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