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Financing Retirement in the European Union   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
This paper explores how EU countries can address various challenges (including the aging of the population) affecting their systems of old-age income support. It presents two scenarios illustrating the most important uncertainties surrounding the major developments that affect the pension systems of the EU. To diversify these risks, EU governments should act on several fronts. In addition to the formation of human capital (especially that of children), employment (especially that of older workers) should be boosted. This calls for social insurance reform with more emphasis on individual saving schemes. Pension schemes should be more explicit about how they share demographic and other risks. Countries that currently rely heavily on public pay-as-you-go (PAYG) schemes should stimulate private pensions by gradually reducing PAYG benefits collected by high-income earners, by issuing new financial instruments, and by conducting intergenerational risk sharing through the tax system.  相似文献
地方融资与政策性融资中的风险共担和风险规避机制   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
我国存在的地方融资平台产生的大量政策性融资已是不争的事实,也是客观现实的需求。现在我们关注的问题不在于地方债的多少,而应更多地关注债务风险,这一债务风险是商业性风险和政策性风险的组合,因此需要建立一套风险共担机制,即由财政、银行、企业共同通过合理而有度的方式进行风险的规避和防范。  相似文献
Suspension of Convertibility versus Deposit Insurance: A Welfare Comparison   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper introduces risk-averse preferences in Chariand Jagannathan (1988). A first motivation for thisextension is to give a positive role for a financial intermediaryin the economy, who offers risk-sharing contracts to liquidityseeking individuals. In this framework, both information-inducedan pure panic runs will occur. The second motivation is tocomplete Chari and Jagannathan's welfare analysis by comparingsuspension of convertibility and deposit insurance, given theirrelative benefits and costs (of randomization in meeting liquidityneeds or deadweight taxation). It is shown that the choice betweenthe two contracts depends on the level of risk aversion, theintertemporal discount factor and the attributes about theunderlying technology.  相似文献
On the Optimality of Bank Runs: Comment on Allen and Gale   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper presents a model consistent with the business cycle view of the origins of banking panics. As in Allen and Gale (1998), bank runs arise endogenously as a consequence of the standard deposit contract in a world with aggregate uncertainty about asset returns. The purpose of the paper is to show that Allen and Gale's result about the optimality of bank runs depends on individuals's preferences. In a more general framework, considered in the present work, a laissez-faire policy can never be optimal, and therefore, regulation is always needed in order to achieve the first best. This result supports the traditional view that bank runs are costly and should be prevented with regulation.  相似文献
财政支持中小企业信用担保政策研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在财政支持中小企业信用担保中,应明确中央财政与地方财政支持中小企业信用担保体系的责任;完善中小企业信用担保组织体系,促进财政支持路径的集中化与系统化;建立风险共担机制,实现中小企业政策性担保业务的可持续;提高财政资金的使用效率与透明度,促进财政支持制度的规范化;明确政策性信用担保机构的政策性目标,落实国家发展战略;明确小企业为信用担保机构侧重支持的对象;继续实施税收优惠政策,支持商业性信用担保机构的发展;以互助性信用担保机构为龙头,构建地域性中小企业服务平台;推进中小企业信用担保机构监管体系的完善等。  相似文献
在经济全球化的背景下,区域货币一体化对于区域内各国的经济发展有着重要意义。当前的国际金融危机使东亚地区货币合作又重新进入人们的视野,关于东亚货币一体化的可行性分析也进入了一个崭新的阶段。此时,我们更需要从抵御风险,实现共同发展的角度来探讨东亚货币一体化。中国作为东亚区域内有影响力的大国,应对此问题有深入思考。本文对最优货币区理论进行了有益的拓展,建立了基于微观基础的国际风险分担机制模型,并运用动态优化的方法严格证明了货币一体化所形成的国际风险分担机制使成员方达到消费保险的目的,这为进一步推动东亚货币一体化的建设提供了新的理论依据。  相似文献
政策性金融改革与浙江民间资本对接   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文介绍了美日等发达国家和国内一些地区以政策性金融、商业性金融和民间资本相结合的融资创新模式,在借鉴这些经验的基础上,指出要建立一套政策性、商业性金融机构、企业主体和财政共担风险的机制,从而打造一个规范的政策性金融体系.  相似文献
金融体系风险分担机制比较研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
金融体系风险分担机制分为金融市场的横向风险分担机制与银行中介的跨期风险分担机制。横向风险分担机制在规避非系统性风险方面占有优势,而跨期风险分担在规避系统性风险方面占有优势。两种风险分担机制是一种互补关系,适度结合才能更好地发挥金融体系的风险分担功能。在经济全球化的过程中,金融体系的两种风险分担机制都会受到损害,对经济稳定形成威胁,因此我们在金融改革和对外开放的过程中应该从风险分担的视角来进行金融体系设计,保持一个健全的风险分担机制。  相似文献
The objective of this paper is to develop conditions for global multivariate comparative risk aversion in the presence of uninsurable, or background, risks, and thus generalize Kihlstrom and Mirman [1974] and Karni [1979,1989]. We analyze von Neumann-Morgenstern (VNM) utility functionsas well as smooth preference functionals which are nonlinear in distribution but locally linear in probabilities. In each case we provide an economic application which illustrates how our theorems can be used. We analyze a risk sharing, a portfolio choice, and a labor supply problem for VNM utility functions, and the optimal allocation of effort to risky technologies in the presence of a random supply (or quality) of a public good for nonlinear preference functionals. We consider thecase where the random variables are mean-independent as well as the case where they are independent. In the labor supply application for VNM utility functions, we show that if the two risks are independent, the comparative statics effect of greater risk aversion on labor supply in the presence of a background non-wage income risk is determined by a monotonic relationship between labor supply and the wage rate under certainty. That is, we extend the applicability of the Diamond-Stiglitz [1974]-Kihlstrom-Mirman [1974]single-crossing property to the case where an independent background risk is present.  相似文献
One of the most enduring topics in financial theory is thepersistence of investment risk across time. Traditional financelacks methods for considering and hedging non-diversifiablerisks. This paper is based on the general equilibrium model ofAllen and Gale (1997). We extend their model in variousdirections: the intermediary is a firm and not a planner,financial markets are assumed to be incomplete, and the mechanismof intergenerational risk-sharing is endogenously determined. Ourmodel allows for the analysis of optimal behavior of individualsand the intermediary together with the respective feedbackprocesses.  相似文献
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