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1.
Two facets of leisure, perceived determinants of well-being and enjoyment of common leisure activities, were investigated in 388 participants. For well-being, a principal components (PCA) analysis yielded five components: competence, relatedness and health, wealth, personal values, and freedom of choice. For the enjoyment of leisure activities, another PCA generated seven components: wellness, sedentary leisure, intellectual leisure, social leisure, routine activities, self-realization, and inner peace. Different leisure enjoyment of young adults (18–30 years old) in contrast to adults and seniors was attributed to social transformations as also predicted by several theories of social change. The relationship between the determinants of well-being and enjoyment of leisure activities was statistically significant but meaningfully debatable.  相似文献   
2.
On the basis of a uses‐and‐gratifications perspective, this exploratory study examined the TV viewing and VCR use of a sample of 119 households with VCRs. The instrument developed for use in this study consisted of a TV and VCR diary in which respondents recorded a variety of information related to each viewing (or recording) occasion for 1 week. The results suggest that although the ability to manipulate the broadcast schedule was a valued feature of the VCR, VCR use merely enhanced established patterns of TV viewing rather than significantly altered TV viewing or leisure behavior. The playback function of the VCR represented a primarily solitary activity pursued for entertainment and relaxation. Watching rented movies represented a primarily social activity pursued for entertainment, relaxation, and companionship. An equal number of television programs were viewed alone as were viewed with others.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract

Hunting participation, as indicated in the 1983 Nationwide Recreation Survey, is examined to determine the relationship between age of first hunting experience and adult level of participation. A statistically significant association between these two variables is found. In addition, more than 83 percent of those who hunt began their involvement by 18 years of age. The findings have implications for future hunting participation and the provision of programs for hunters.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract

Research on the political activity of outdoor recreationists has focused primarily on their associational affiliations and concern for the environment. This article reviews literature on theories of collective behavior, recreation motivations, and environmental concern. The study considers outdoor recreation as a social movement and investigates relationships between incentives for voluntary membership in environmental and outdoor recreation associations, motivations for participation in outdoor recreation activities, and environmental concern. Members of associations were found to be significantly different than nonmembers on several variables including value for outdoor recreation, incentives for association membership, intellectual motivations for outdoor recreation, environmental concern, education level, and age. Results suggest that association efforts to obtain instrumental benefits, or public goods that accrue to all of society, are a primary incentive for outdoor recreationists to join voluntary associations. A common thread of intellectual pursuit distinguished members from nonmembers, suggesting that intellectual benefits may help define the relationship between outdoor recreation and associational affiliation behaviors.  相似文献   
5.
Abstract

This study examined attitudes held toward the public and commercial sectors as variables relevant to classifying the recreation participants. The data were collected in a controlled experimental setting. A taxonomy was developed which can be used to categorize individuals on the basis of their attitudes toward the two sectors. Discriminant analysis was used to place individual subjects into one of nine groups in the taxonomy. The discriminant analysis identified statistically significant differences in the attitudes of individuals who were placed into the various groups. Further analysis revealed that the taxonomy may be simplified by collapsing the nine groups into three groups. The three groups include: (1) people who have more favorable attitudes toward the public sector than toward the commercial sector; (2) people who have more favorable attitudes toward the commercial sector than toward the public sector; and (3) people who have similar attitudes toward both sectors. Limitations of the study, implications for managers, and directions for future research are discussed.  相似文献   
6.
Community-based ecotourism (CBET) is presented as a tool for conservation and sustainable development by conservation practitioners and development agencies, but is reported to have achieved little. Several scholars argue that many problems stem from inadequate power relationships between external actors and local communities, leading to low community participation. This study opens a debate on governance and social enterprise in CBET by examining a bottom-up approach to community-based ecotourism based on a small-scale CBET initiative in an amenity-poor remote indigenous community in Papua New Guinea. This initiative is unique in the following aspects: it was initiated by a community member; external assistance was advisory only; no external financial assistance was given; and it has taken place in a non-monetised economy. Participant observation and in-depth interviews with local key informants were used to identify community-defined positive/negative impacts and community participation processes. Overall, there was substantial support for the project; it contributed to community welfare, generated economic benefit, had positive conservation outcomes and from the viewpoint of the community had no adverse cultural impacts. One of the keys for success was the development of a strong community agency that led to high community participation and individual rather than the community ownership.  相似文献   
7.
Host/Guest Encounters in the Commercial Home   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Abstract

Commercial homes, which provide hospitality where the private home dimension is significant, blur traditional boundaries between home and work and social constructions of hospitableness versus hospitality. Drawing on interviews with owner‐managers of these micro businesses and a guest‐researcher’s experiences and observations, this paper explores the home space as a dual‐purpose site of both commercial work and domestic retreat. First, use and meanings of domestic symbols in performances on the home as stage are examined. Second, there is an exploration of social control and spatial management strategies employed by hosts and guests. The findings reveal that domestic symbols add to the construction and interpretation of negotiated normative practices within these home‐based enterprises. They may adopt the role of identity markers and communication tools. Hosts employ an array of mechanisms to achieve physical or emotional distance between the domains of home and work. Social constructs may be subtle as well as explicit, including spatial as well as temporal mechanisms of social control and boundary setting, framed by unspoken protocols.  相似文献   
8.
间接言语行为是人际交流中使用的一种重要语言策略。在进行跨文化交际时,由于英汉语两种文化在文化惯例、语境暗示和情感蕴涵等方面的差异,在具体的间接言语行为的表达和理解上都会存在差异,导致交流产生障碍,这是需要注意的。  相似文献   
9.
This paper presents a simulation model based on the growth rate, the inflation rate, and the consumption tax rate in the future. Future tax revenues and fiscal expenditures are projected using regression models estimated from past data. The fiscal situation is called unsustainable if the outstanding amount of Japanese government bonds (JGBs) becomes higher than the level of private sector financial assets. We focus on the general account of the central government, which is the source of JGB issues. We find that the higher the economic growth, the more likely it is that the fiscal situation is sustainable. When a larger portion of interest income is reinvested in JGBs, the chance is higher that the fiscal situation is sustainable. Most importantly, raising the consumption tax to 20% guarantees fiscal sustainability in most cases. Our analysis shows that without a consumption tax hike beyond the 10% rate, a fiscal crisis will be almost a certainty, even with a real economic growth rate of 2% despite a shrinking labor force. A reasonably quick hike of the consumption tax, namely a hike by 1% a year, up to 20%, combined with high or moderate economic growth rates, seems to keep the economy out of a fiscal crisis, where a moderate growth rate is defined to be generated by a productivity increase per working‐age population of 1.9%, which was the average during the Koizumi years.  相似文献   
10.
Although the critical role of relationship value to business has been widely acknowledged, a review of the extant literature reveals that understanding on antecedents of relationship value is limited to relationship-specific factors, and impacts of key customer relationship value on performance still await empirical substantiation. Grounded in dynamic learning capability and social capital perspective, this study collected a sample of 411 principal–agent relationships to examine the relative impact of predictors in creating relationship values from the supplier angle. The result shed light on the significant mediating role of dynamic learning over the linkage between social capital and relationship value.  相似文献   
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