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1.
The role of clustering in the growth of new technology-based firms   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
This study analyses the relationship between clusters and the growth performance of new U.S. technology-based firms. It is argued that firms benefit because clustering provides access to specialized resources that cannot be developed internally. The empirical results indicate that distance from a cluster is negatively related to growth, but clustering has a greater positive impact on biotech firms. Proximity to a cluster within a diverse metropolitan area is associated with superior growth performance only for firms that rely heavily on broad, downstream supply chain effects (that is, for information and communications technology firms).  相似文献   
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The nature of contrast effects is equivocal. Prior research has conceptualized contrast effects as emerging from an effortful attempt to counteract the natural tendency to assimilate to relevant contextual information. Others have suggested that contrast effects can be the natural, default outcome if the context stimulus is extreme relative to the target. Even with this latter perspective, however, individuals are believed to be sufficiently aware of the contextual influence so as to be able to counteract it if so motivated. These conceptualizations call into question the extent to which contrast effects can occur automatically, without awareness. By using an opposition paradigm that pits automatic influences against conscious influences, unequivocal evidence is provided that contrast effects can occur automatically; contrast effects emerged even when the contextual information was not accessible from memory and study participants were explicitly trying to avoid the influence of contextual information. Explanations are proffered as to why evaluations driven by automatic contrast effects could be inconsistent with preference judgments. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
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This paper investigates the role of discount travel agencies such as Priceline and Hotwire in the market segmentation of the hotel and airline industries. These agencies conceal important characteristics of the offered services, such as hotel locations or flight schedules. We explicitly model this opaque feature and show that it enables service providers to price discriminate between those customers who are sensitive to service characteristics and those who are not. Service providers can profit from such discrimination despite the fact that the opaque feature virtually erases product differentiation and thus intensifies competition. The reason is that the intensified competition for less sensitive customers enables service providers to commit to a higher price for more sensitive customers, which leads to higher profits overall. This explains why airlines or hotels are willing to lose the advantage of product differentiation and offer services through discount travel agencies.  相似文献   
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A new class of asymmetric loss functions derived from the least absolute deviations or least squares loss with a constraint on the mean of one tail of the residual error distribution, is introduced for analyzing financial data. Motivated by risk management principles, the primary intent is to provide “cautious” forecasts under uncertainty. The net effect on fitted models is to shape the residuals so that on average only a prespecified proportion of predictions tend to fall above or below a desired threshold. The loss functions are reformulated as objective functions in the context of parameter estimation for linear regression models, and it is demonstrated how optimization can be implemented via linear programming. The method is a competitor of quantile regression, but is more flexible and broader in scope. An application is illustrated on prediction of NDX and SPX index returns data, while controlling the magnitude of a fraction of worst losses.  相似文献   
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In some markets sellers have better information than buyers over which products best serve a buyer's needs. Depending on the market structure, this may lead to conflicts of interest in the provision of information by sellers. This paper studies this issue in the market for financial services. The analysis presents a new model of competition between banks, where price competition influences the ensuing incentives for truthful information revelation. We also compare conflicts of interest in two different firm structures, specialized banking and one-stop banking.  相似文献   
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This article investigates a fund manager's risk-taking incentivesinduced by an increasing and convex relationship of fund flowsto relative performance. In a dynamic portfolio choice framework,we show that the ensuing convexities in the manager's objectivegive rise to a finite risk-shifting range over which she gamblesto finish ahead of her benchmark. Such gambling entails eitheran increase or a decrease in the volatility of the manager'sportfolio, depending on her risk tolerance. In the latter case,the manager reduces her holdings of the risky asset despiteits positive risk premium. Our empirical analysis lends supportto the novel predictions of the model.  相似文献   
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In emerging democracies, elections are encouraged as a route to democratization. However, not only does violence often threaten these elections, but citizens often view as corrupt the security forces deployed to combat violence. We examine the effects of such security provision. In Afghanistan's 2010 parliamentary election, polling centers with similar histories of pre‐election violence unintentionally received different deployments of the Afghan National Police, enabling identification of police's effects on turnout. Using data from the universe of polling sites and various household surveys, data usually unavailable in conflict settings, we estimate increases in police presence decreased voter turnout by an average of 30%. Our results adjudicate between competing theoretical mechanisms through which security forces could affect turnout, and show behavior is not driven by voter anticipation of election‐day violence. This highlights a pitfall for building government legitimacy via elections in weakly institutionalized and conflict‐affected states.  相似文献   
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