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This paper investigates arbitrage chains involving four currencies and four foreign exchange trader‐arbitrageurs. In contrast with the three‐currency case, we find that arbitrage operations when four currencies are present may appear periodic in nature, and not involve smooth convergence to a ‘balanced’ ensemble of exchange rates in which the law of one price holds. The goal of this article is to understand some interesting features of sequences of arbitrage operations, features which might well be relevant in other contexts in finance and economics.  相似文献   
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Managing the carbon footprint of companies and addressing their respective decarbonization plans is a challenging endeavour. The aim of this study is to help companies better understand the issues around decarbonization and environmental performance by suggesting a holistic management process on which they could embark. This process comprises two crucial steps, which are (a) sustainability reporting and (b) low‐carbon roadmaps. These steps are covered and further developed based on a detailed study of the UK food retail sector. This sector is relevant due to its economic and environmental importance, but most importantly it has a significant record of available environmental reports in the public domain and a large potential to influence consumers, policy makers and multiple supply chains. Sustainability reporting is assessed by analysing environmental KPIs disclosed in corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports, and then these are compared against industry standards. This analysis highlights a general lack of consistency and transparency in CSR reporting of UK food retailers. Consequently, a low‐carbon roadmap based on relevant KPIs and on the ‘backcasting’ framework is presented as a case study in order to showcase how a hypothetical UK food retailer can employ a low‐carbon roadmap. The case study demonstrates that ambitious environmental targets are achievable if robust corporate action plans are followed. Furthermore, the case study indicates that capital might be misallocated in favour of highly visible environmental stores and on‐site energy generation technologies, whilst more could be done by applying energy efficiency measures that have the potential to deliver substantial carbon savings. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.  相似文献   
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This article considers the evolution of interfirm networks within a context of technological change. More specifically, it studies the evolution of structural and positional embeddedness in a network of technology‐based alliances when it moves from an early period of invention creation to a subsequent period of new product development and commercialization. Empirically, we study the evolution of technology‐based alliance networks in the biopharmaceutical industry over a period of about 25 years, from 1975 until 1999. Examining interorganizational networks over such an extended time period allows us to move beyond more static approaches that have characterized most network studies until now, and consider network evolution along its various phases of birth, growth, and early maturation instead. Our findings indicate that the evolution of both structural and positional embeddedness does not follow the common idea of a path of linear progression, but instead strongly exhibits nonlinearity by resembling a sigmoid pattern. These findings have a number of implications. First, the break in the process of linear progression contrasts with the standing literature that (implicitly) assumes the informational and resource value of a network structure to remain constant over time or to evolve linearly from carrying low value to progressively higher value. Instead, our finding that the evolution of structural and positional embeddedness is nonlinear echoes the speculative idea, as expressed by Gulati and Garguilo, that network change may possibly be nonlinear when seen over the long run. A second implication concerns the validity of standing insights from the social network literature such as Coleman's theory of social capital and Burt's theory of structural holes. These theories may not apply to the extent that there are strong changes in environmental conditions like environmental uncertainty and/or munificence, such as during a transition phase as considered in this study.  相似文献   
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In the context of linear multi-factor models, this study proposes an egalitarian, optimal and unique procedure to find orthogonalized factors, which also facilitates the decomposition of the coefficient of determination. Importantly, the new risk factors may diverge significantly from the original ones. The decomposition of risk allows one to explicitly examine the impact of individual factors on the return variation of risky assets, which provides discriminative power for factor selection. The procedure is experimentally robust even for small samples. Empirically we find that even though, on average, approximately eighty (sixty-five) percent of style (industry) portfolios’ volatility is explained by the market and size factors, other factors such as value, momentum and contrarian still play an important role for certain portfolios. The components of systematic risk, while dynamic over time, generally exhibit negative correlation between market, on one side, and size, value, momentum and contrarian, on the other side.  相似文献   
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