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Economies of scale in the provision of export services and informal face-to-face exchanges of information about export markets may improve export performance of small firms located in Marshallian districts (locales). This paper presents an empirical test of this hypothesis and finds that geographical agglomeration of small-medium firms in a delimited area significantly affects their export intensity and their probability of becoming exporters. The significance of geographical agglomeration persists in spite of all controls which show how the dependent variable is also (positively) affected by export subsidies, formal export cooperation among firms, cooperation in (and quality of) innovation, size and age.  相似文献
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As a distinct stream of research, export marketing strategy examines management's reaction to environmental threats in the forms of export adaptation strategies. Review studies repeatedly found that product adaptation was correlated with superior export performance. Despite the insights gained from strategic export marketing research, there remains very limited knowledge concerning organizational factors that may reduce rigid product adaptation decisions. Based on the threat-rigidity theory, this study identified two critical factors that reduce rigid product adaptation decisions: export coordination and process control mechanisms. The empirical evidence showed that export venture performance was adversely affected by rigid product adaptation decisions, and such adverse effect was particularly strong when operating under technological uncertainty. Exporting firms are advised to reduce likelihood of rigid product adaptation decisions by expanding export coordination when integrating business functions within the firm and adopting process control when monitoring exchanges with foreign agents.  相似文献
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