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1.
In the Greater Mumbai Region (GMR), jobs and housing are agglomerating in nodes in the periphery of Mumbai City. However, current transportation investments focus on strengthening connections within Mumbai City, while these outlying nodes have received less attention. As housing and jobs move out, given limited travel choices, the need for mobility nudges many middle class Indian households into owning private vehicles. Using household travel survey data from the GMR, this paper develops an understanding of how worker’s trips are different for those who commute to the city versus the exurbs. Socio-economic and transportation indicators for middle class workers going to the city versus the exurbs show that these populations are quite similar demographically. However, those traveling to the exurbs, on average, tend to be at a socio-economic disadvantage with respect to income, education and out-of-pocket travel burdens. Those traveling to exurban work locations have shorter travel times and trip distances, and make much higher use of walking, biking, rickshaws, and motorized two-wheelers compared to commuters to Mumbai City. Across the GMR, car users travel longer and farther compared to motorized two-wheeler users. On average, traveling by a private vehicle is faster than bus or rickshaw travel revealing advantages of private vehicle use. These mode choices in the middle class have resulted in rapid motorization and negative externalities such as traffic congestion and emissions. Evidence of large increases in motorized two-wheelers and cars in India suggests that these modes will likely keep growing, unless competing efficient travel options are supplied.  相似文献   
2.
Controversy over labor market policy often centers on achieving a balance between preventing worker exploitation, and avoiding loss of productivity or employment through excessive regulation. Although the literature documenting the impact of labor market regulation on employment is extensive, there is a dearth of evidence on the impact of such policies in low‐income countries (LICs). Since it is easier for workers, especially women, to slip into the informal sector in LICs, regulations are likely to have stronger impacts on formal employment in these countries (but lower impacts on unemployment). We systematically reviewed available research from countries that are, or were until recently, LICs. Most studies document that more stringent labor regulations are associated with lower formal sector employment and higher informal sector employment. We also conducted a metaregression analysis of the impact of minimum wages on formal and informal employment. After controlling for publication bias, higher minimum wages are associated with lower formal employment and a higher share of informal workers.  相似文献   
3.
We examine fluctuations in employment growth using Canadian data from 1976 to 2010. We consider a wide range of models and examine the sensitivity of our findings to modelling assumptions. The results from our most preferred model, which we selected using the Bayesian Information Criteria, indicate that most of the variance in employment growth that is not due to the idiosyncratic error comes from domestic sources, with most of this coming from industry and provincial factors. Overall, we find that external and national factors play a much smaller role in employment fluctuations than in earlier research. We provide some possible explanations for these differences and discuss the implications of our findings for public policy and theory.  相似文献   
4.
高校毕业生就业形势出现的新变化、毕业生就业形式的多样化以及新媒体的出现对辅导员就业服务能力提出了新要求。因此,辅导员必须紧跟时代步伐,积极培育社会主义核心价值观,以人为本,创新就业服务方式方法,加强就业心理辅导,完善就业服务方式,加大个性化指导力度,提高就业服务能力,进而实现毕业生高质量的就业。  相似文献   
5.
日本女性就业状况的变化及其原因分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
随着日本女性的社会地位不断提高,男主外,女主内的传统思想正在改变,很多女性进入社会就职。男女雇佣机会均等时代的到来、促进妇女就业的法规措施的强化、雇佣形态的多样化发展、子女教育费的压力、女性生活意识的变化等因素推动了日本女性就业的发展。但是,日本女性就业的同时也产生了诸多的社会影响。  相似文献   
6.
受全球性金融危机的影响,我国经济运行面临着极其严峻的挑战,对此,我国政府及时采取了一系列稳定国内经济的政策措施,其中以政府新增4万亿的经济振兴计划最为引人注目。本文在利用乘数-加速数模型和误差修正模型对经济增长效应与就业效应进行实证分析的基础上,从经济结构的角度对各行业的经济增长效应、就业效应和综合效应进行了分析与比较,并依定量分析的结果提出了经济刺激方案的结构性优化路径选择方式。  相似文献   
7.
对于中国的高速经济增长并没有带来相应的就业增长这样一个经验事实,存在奥肯定律是否有效的问题。我们通过研究认为,单纯验证奥肯定律并不能得出其是否有效的结论。放松其他条件不变的假定,加入其他影响因素的检验结果显示,经济增长与失业率虽然呈现总体上的负向关系,但是经济增长与就业人数增长率也呈现出负向关系,这表明奥肯定律在中国是失效的。因此,我们认为之所以高速的经济增长不能带来持续的就业增长的原因可能是,劳动密集型产业的收入分配中表现出资本密集型产业的特征,而资本密集型产业的收入分配中表现出劳动密集型产业的特征。  相似文献   
8.
We provide the first experimental evidence about ethnic and gender discrimination in the labor market of a former Soviet Union country, Georgia. We randomly assign Georgian and non-Georgian, male and female, names to similar resumes and apply for jobs as advertised on help-wanted websites in Georgia. We find that gender has no effect on the probability of callback, but a job applicant who is ethnically Georgian is more than twice as likely to be called for a job interview than an equally skilled ethnic non-Georgian (Azerbaijani or Armenian). The 113% ethnic gap in callbacks (167% among males and 79% among females), which is substantially larger than the gap typically documented in the existing literature for both developed and developing countries, is statistically significant and cannot be abridged by having more experience or education. There is no evidence of gender discrimination in callbacks, both within the Georgian group and the non-Georgian group.  相似文献   
9.
This study investigates the impact of a deregulation of shop opening laws on employment in the German retail sector. Exploiting the gradual change in the opening times of shops across states and using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, difference-in-differences estimates indicate an average increase in the employment probability, driven by a rise in the likelihood of working marginal part-time hours. Workers in small firms are likely to experience a reduction of their propensity to work. For individuals facing high family-related, supply-side constraints, the change in shop opening hours has opposing effects on employment — positive on lower and negative on upper parts of the hours distribution. Overall, the deregulation is estimated to have raised the likelihood of working fewer hours than desired by the workers.  相似文献   
10.
We estimate the determinants of capital intensity in Japan and the US, characterized by striking different paths. We augment an otherwise standard Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) model with demand-side considerations, which we find especially relevant in the US. In this augmented setting, the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor is placed between 0.74 and 0.90 in Japan, and around 0.30 in the US. We also find evidence of biased technical change, which is capital-saving in Japan but labor-saving in the US. These differences help us explain the diverse experience in the capital deepening process of these economies, and lead us to conclude that demand-side drivers, quite relevant in the US, may also be relevant to account for different growth experiences. A close look at the nature of technological change is also needed before designing one-size-fits-all industrial, economic growth, and/or labor market policies.  相似文献   
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