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1.
Problems in valuing the benefits of biodiversity protection   总被引:15,自引:2,他引:13  
This paper considers two problems in valuing the benefits of biodiversity protection. These are, firstly, that preferences for biodiversity protection may be lexicographic rather than utilitarian. The more individuals for whom this is true, the less is cost-benefit analysis validated as a means of decision making for biodiversity protection, since lexicographic preferences are incompatible with the Kaldor-Hicks Compensation Test. Secondly, people may be poorly informed about the meaning of biodiversity, complicating the use of contingent valuation as a means of measuring preservation benefits. This paper first discusses the meaning of biodiversity, and trends in diversity over time. We offer some empirical evidence with regard to lexicographic preferences; consider the implications of having poorly-informed consumers; and then report the results of a contingent valuation study of biodiversity protection with varying levels of information. We find that willingness to pay for biodiversity protection increases with the level of information provided.We thank David Pearce, participants at a seminar at University College London, and two referees for comments on earlier versions of this paper.  相似文献
2.
The Worth of a Possum: Valuing Species with the Contingent Valuation Method   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8  
The focus of this paper is on methods of assessing the value peopleplace on the conservation of species for use in policy making. Of principalinterest is the relatively new methodology of contingent valuation, whichis a method for asking people directly about their preferences. The paperpresents an application of the contingent valuation method to theconservation of an endangered species in the State of Victoria, Australia.The results emphasise the importance of careful survey design,implementation and analysis as well as the precise definition of theenvironmental good being valued. Consequently, the contingent valuationmethod does provide information relevant to decision making processesbased on monetary economic considerations. Thus, in orthodox economicterms it makes sense to conserve species – but there are other moral andethical grounds for conserving species as well.  相似文献
3.
评土地利用对生物多样性的影响   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
生物多样性是人类赖以生存和发展的可再生资源。然而,由于人类活动尤其是荒地开垦、化肥的大量使用等土地利用活动的加剧,以及大规模砍伐森林和栖息地破碎化等土地利用格局的改变,严重破坏了自然景观,改变动植物的生存环境,使生态系统功能退化,并最终导致了生物多样性的丧失。因此,生物多样性的保护和可持续利用问题已成为国际社会普遍关注的热点。  相似文献
4.
Do we really care about Biodiversity?   总被引:7,自引:7,他引:0  
This paper addresses from an economic perspective the issue of global biodiversity conservation. It challenges the perception that the world really cares a great deal about biodiversity and is prepared to pay the full cost of maintaining this stock of natural capital. Despite the existence of a plethora of international agreements there still seems to be a global ‘deficit of care’ surrounding efforts to combat challenges such as those posed by global warming and biodiversity conservation. More light can be thrown on the degree of care by measuring both the actual expenditures and the stated willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation. However, actual expenditures are much lower than willingness to pay estimates recorded in the published literature. Using the criteria that the ‘right’ amount of conservation effort is one where the marginal economic benefits from conservation just equal the marginal costs of conservation, the paper explores the biodiversity conservation conundrum and concluded that, on the available evidence, the world does not care too much about this natural capital stock and bequests to future generations. An erratum to this article can be found at  相似文献
5.
论生物多样性保护与社会经济持续发展的关系   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
本文在介绍生物多样性的概念及其丧失现状的基础上,重点分析了生物多样性保护与社会经济持续发展的关系,即生物多样性保护是社会经济持续发展的物质基础,社会经济持续发展为生物多样性保护提供了物质保障。虽然生物多样性丧失这一问题产生于经济发展过程中,但是也必然会随着社会经济的持续发展而得到解决。  相似文献
6.
北京松山自然保护区的经营目标与生态旅游对策   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
本文通过阐述我国国有林场体系自然保护区的来历,具体介绍了北京松山自然保护区概况及设置过程,分析了其经营目标,并对其旅游的开展进行了评价。最后提出,为了保护生物多样性,在国有林场体系的自然保护区内开展生态旅游是必要的,即以生态旅游为中介,由经营者、当地居民、旅游者及相关行政部门等利益主体来共同参与保护区的管理,最终实现保护生物多样性的目的。  相似文献
7.
保护生物多样性的生态经济学研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
生物多样性是近年来的环境热点问题之一。长期以来,对生物多样性的研究多局限于自然科学领域,然而,要有效的保护生物多样性必须了解其对人类和在国民经济系统中的重要性,以及生物多样性损失的原因,研究表明,经济上的原因是生物多样性的损失的主要原因,因此,本文从经济学角度来研究,评估生物多样性的经济价值,研究经济活动、经济政策与生物多样性状态之间的联系,并提出生物多样性可持续利用的经济政策。  相似文献
8.
Resilience in the Dynamics of Economy-Environment Systems   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
The ecological concept of resilience has begun to inform analysis of change in economy-environment systems. The linkages between resilience and the stability of dynamical systems are discussed, along with its role in understanding of the evolution of such systems. Particular linkages discussed include those between resilience, biodiversity and the sustainability of alternative states. Recent developments in modelling the resilience of joint economy-environment systems suggest the advantages of analysing change in the system as a Markov process, the transition probabilities between states offering a natural measure of the resilience of the system in such states. It is argued that this ‘emergent property’ of the collaboration between ecology and economics has far-reaching implications for the way we think about, model and manage the environmental sustainability of economic development.  相似文献
9.
Resilience in the Dynamics of Economy-Environment Systems   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
The ecological concept of resilience has begun to inform analysis of change in economy-environment systems. The linkages between resilience and the stability of dynamical systems are discussed, along with its role in understanding of the evolution of such systems. Particular linkages discussed include those between resilience, biodiversity and the sustainability of alternative states. Recent developments in modelling the resilience of joint economy-environment systems suggest the advantages of analysing change in the system as a Markov process, the transition probabilities between states offering a natural measure of the resilience of the system in such states. It is argued that this ‘emergent property’ of the collaboration between ecology and economics has far-reaching implications for the way we think about, model and manage the environmental sustainability of economic development.  相似文献
10.
生物多样性保护的生态补偿机制   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
王福兴  姜丽秋 《经济地理》2008,28(4):667-670,687
生物多样性公共性特征的存在,决定了市场交换不能实现其经济价值,要充分发挥它的经济效益,就必须通过生态补偿机制来实现生物多样性保护外部性的内部化.本文从生态系统和物种等不同层次上对生物多样性的生态补偿机制进行探讨,分析了我国生态补偿的现状以及森林生态效益的计量评价体系,并在资源、生态、市场等方面提出了建立生态补偿机制的对策和建议.  相似文献
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