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1.
How damaging is the Sunni/Shia split to the economies of Islamic countries? Is it better to be one or the other? Or is it better to have an even balance between the two? Answering these questions is complicated by the fact that the data are often missing or imprecisely measured. We employ the technique of Bayesian data augmentation to circumvent these two problems, and find that properly controlling for these features in the data leads to drastically different conclusions than what is found using ordinary least squares. We find that there is nothing in the differential nature of Sunni or Shia Islam to make one more economically prosperous than the other. Nor do we find any support for the popular hypothesis that Sunnis and Shias cannot mix.  相似文献   
2.

The paper presents a conceptual model of an integrated management information system for municipal parks maintenance and operations. Research efforts in management information systems are presented in three categories: Business Research, Federally Sponsored Research, and Park and Recreation Systems Research. A case is made for further empirical research, the development of normative models, and evaluative criteria in an attempt to realize the full potential of electronic data processing in parks and recreation.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract

The effects of fifteen barriers to participation were examined among people who expressed a desire for but were unable to participate in a new recreational activity. Work commitments, overcrowding of facilities, and lack of partners were the three main barriers. The effects of barriers were not perceived uniformly across the sample but varied between subgroups defined according to socioeconomic variables: the people most likely to be affected by barriers to participation included the poor, the elderly, and single parents. The extent to which recreation practitioners can and should respond to these kinds of research findings is discussed, and several ways in which the effects of barriers to participation might be modified or alleviated are evaluated.  相似文献   
4.
Three large unbalanced panels of Italian manufacturing firms observed over the period 1991–2009 are employed to assess, by means of a dynamic GMM approach, whether the existence of financial frictions is suitable to explain deviations of inventories from their long-run path. A negative response of inventory investment to the presence of financial burdens might provide evidence of a significant role played by the financial framework in conditioning the real side of the economy, especially during recession years, when liquidity problems arise. The negative effect is found over the entire analyzed period, with firms' dimensional aspects accounting more than risk characteristics to explain the phenomenon, but the inclusion of recessionary dummies into the model leads to controversial and puzzling results. A significant recessionary effect is found during the Nineties, accounting for inventories being more sensitive to financial frictions during the main recessionary peaks, 1993 and 1996. The result is not confirmed by the most recent estimates, especially the ones referring to the 2008–2009 recessionary shock, whose effects are investigated for the first time by a paper addressing the inventory investment–financial constraints subject. Alternative hypothesis for the proposed results have been tested on data. Firms were found to rely on inventory decumulation to a lesser extent compared to the past, to generate internal financing. More specifically, disinvestments in financial assets were found to represent, as a matter of fact, one of the main drivers adopted to ease liquidity tensions: a negative and strongly significant relationship with inventory investment was detected, after controlling for short-run liquidity constraints at firm level. By contrast, only a weak negative relationship was established with fixed capital during the same recessionary biennium.  相似文献   
5.
We combine contingent behaviour with travel cost data to estimate the change in the recreational use value of a National Forest due to quality and price changes. Instead of the usual improvement scenario, a hypothetical deterioration in the conditions of the forest due to a fire is considered. A dataset containing five observations for each respondent enabled the estimation of three models for which the number of scenarios differed. The results show that visitors are sensitive to price and quality changes and that in the forest fire scenario the intended number of trips would be reduced and that respondents would experience a welfare loss. Signs of inconsistency between preferences expressed by revealed and intended behaviour were found. This research also provides some indications that strategic bias affects answers to price changes.  相似文献   
6.
This article presents the outcomes of an evaluation of the impact of the series of mergers of the local exchange companies that have taken place between 1988 and 2001 on an important measure of performance of the firms undergoing the mergers. The analysis reveals that after firms have undertaken one merger they experience little or no growth after such mergers, but the impact of second mergers on firm growth have been negative. If an important motive in undertaking mergers has been to enhance firm growth, then the merger waves that have been approved and consummated have led to performance declines. The impacts of the merger wave on the growth of the telecommunications sector firms have been negative.  相似文献   
7.
Changes in labor market institutions and the increasing integration of the world economy may affect the volatility of capital and labor incomes. This article documents and analyzes changes in income volatility using data for 11 industrialized countries, 22 industries and 35 years (1970–2004). The article has four main findings. First, the unconditional volatility of labor income has declined in parallel to the decline in macroeconomic volatility. Second, the industry‐specific, idiosyncratic component of labor income volatility has hardly changed. Third, cross‐sectional heterogeneity is substantial. If anything, the labor incomes of high‐ and low‐skilled workers have become more volatile relative to the volatility of capital incomes. Fourth, the volatility of labor income relative to the volatility of capital income declines in the labor share. Trade openness has no clear‐cut impact.  相似文献   
8.
利用第五次和第六次人口普查数据探讨了中国31省市区文化产业发展的区域特征及其影响因素.对31省市区文化产业就业人数的分析表明,进入新世纪以来,文化产业发展呈显著不平衡,主要表现在行业间发展不平衡和空间分布上不平衡.计量检验显示,地区生活质量、开放度、人口密度和区位条件都是影响中国文化产业区域发展差异的重要因素,但影响传统文化产业和新兴文化产业发展的主要因素是不同的.今后各地区应着重从优化城市生活质量和增强开放性出发,利用城市化经济和地方化经济形成循环累计因果效应,推动文化产业发展.  相似文献   
9.
Changes in circumstances put pressure on Statistics Netherlands (SN) to redesign the way its statistics are produced. Key developments are: the changing needs of data‐users, growing competition, pressure to reduce the survey burden on enterprises, emerging new technologies and methodologies and, first and foremost, the need for more efficiency because of budget cuts. This paper describes how SN, and especially its business statistics, can adapt to these new circumstances. We envisage an optimum situation as one with a single standardised production line for all statistics and a central data repository at its core. This single production line is supported by generic and standardised tools, metadata and workflow management. However, it is clear that such an optimum situation cannot be realised in just a few years. It should be seen as the point on the horizon. Therefore, we also describe the first transformation steps from the product‐based stovepipe‐oriented statistical process of the past to a more integrated process of the future. A similar modernisation process exists in the area of social statistics. In the near future both systems of business and social statistics are expected to connect at pivotal points and eventually converge on one overall business architecture for SN. Discussions about such an overall business architecture for SN have already been started and the first core projects have been set up.  相似文献   
10.
耕地质量监测预警研究进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
耕地质量是人类社会赖以生存与发展的物质基础,是农业发展的基本生产资料。为发挥监测预警体系在耕地质量建设中的主体作用,实现耕地质量的可持续利用,本文采用文献综述法和系统分析法综述了耕地质量监测和预警体系在国内外的研究进展,并着重对时间序列分析模型、灰色预测模型和回归分析模型三种耕地质量预警模型进行阐述。耕地质量监测预警体系具有实时、动态、全方位的监测与预警功能,对监测预警指标体系、方法、周期、模型和理论实践探究还需要进一步完善,同时还需要借助应用大数据,以期为耕地质量精准化监测预警提供实时的数据及模型支持服务。  相似文献   
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