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1.
中国农村居民点整理潜力研究综述   总被引:29,自引:3,他引:26  
对中国农村居民点整理潜力研究进行了回顾和展望,寻找存在的不足,探讨今后的研究方向.研究表明:①相关的农村居民点整理潜力理论主要有农村宅基地转型理论、空心村理论以及农村居民点演变规律等,这些理论可以为农村居民点整理潜力的测算和挖潜措施的制定提供依据;②农村居民点整理潜力的内涵多被界定为整理增加耕地面积的潜力,其主要测算方法有人均建设用地标准法、户均建设用地标准法和农村居民点内部土地闲置率法三种;③整理增加耕地系数是当前农村居民点整理潜力分级的主要依据;④相关的农村居民点挖潜政策措施主要有城乡建设用地增减挂钩政策、新农村建设政策和城乡统筹政策三个.今后,农村居民点整理潜力研究可在以下几个方面进行改善:①理论研究亟需多学科理论的融合以搭建新的框架,加强理论框架对潜力测算方法的指导;②潜力内涵应更加注重整理增加土地面积的表述,人均建设用地标准法的修正需更加系统,潜力分级指标需更加有针对性;③加强城乡建设用地增减挂钩、新农村建设、城乡统筹三个政策与农村居民点挖潜关系的梳理,为潜力挖掘提供足够的政策支持和方法保障.  相似文献
2.
农村居民点整理是促进资源集约利用、推动农村发展的重要途径.以大都市郊区的上海市金山区为例,提炼农村居民点整婵模式,并评价其经济可行性、资源利用性及农村发展性.研究表明:金山区农村居民点整理主要受"三集中"相关政策主导,模式特点为:①政府主导;②市场化运作;③村民负担小,受益大;④置换成本高.评价结果显示:可达到较好的资源利用目标,并有效促进农村发展;经济可行性较差,政府角度资金平衡度为0.67-0.77,新增耕地单位成本达到350-496万元/hm2.该研究可为同类大都市郊区的农村居民点整理提供借鉴.  相似文献
3.
评土地利用对生物多样性的影响   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
生物多样性是人类赖以生存和发展的可再生资源。然而,由于人类活动尤其是荒地开垦、化肥的大量使用等土地利用活动的加剧,以及大规模砍伐森林和栖息地破碎化等土地利用格局的改变,严重破坏了自然景观,改变动植物的生存环境,使生态系统功能退化,并最终导致了生物多样性的丧失。因此,生物多样性的保护和可持续利用问题已成为国际社会普遍关注的热点。  相似文献
4.
For ecological and economic reasons it is more cost effective to conserve habitats rather than species, and hence biodiversity conservation becomes a land use issue. Since in developing countries, land is the most important productive asset, the opportunity costs of conservation are forgone development, while the benefits from conservation are distant and largely external to the host country. The concept of transferable development rights (TDRs), which has been extensively applied to conservation of historical buildings in urban areas, is extended and adapted here to the conservation of biodiversity, both within a country and globally. Creation of a market for TDRs makes effective the latent demand for and supply of biodiversity conservation and generates benefits for both the supplier (developing countries) and the demander (developed countries). The paper explores the conditions and public interventions necessary for the creation of an active market for TDRs. It also proposes a number of mechanisms such as credits and offsets for purchase of TDRs against domestic regulations and conservation taxes in the developed countries.  相似文献
5.
胡细英  刘强  张迪 《经济地理》2008,28(4):565-568
人居环境是人类聚居区人类周围一切自然要素与社会要素的总和,城市人居环境质量的提高是城市文明发展的标志,成为整个人类社会关注的焦点之一.文章从阐述人居环境形成的构成要素出发,以江西省南昌市为例,分析城市化进程中的人居环境建设问题,认为城市生态休闲是城市居民为充分体验生态文明而构建的高品位的生存状态和发展状态,是城市人居环境建设的重要内容.并提出充分利用城市现有的绿地、水域,特别是环境条件良好、生态自成体系的单位用地,编制生态休闲示范区规划,积累经验,以点带面,寻找一条适合欠发达地区城市人居环境建设的发展道路.  相似文献
6.
A note on the ecological-economic modelling of marine reserves in fisheries   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
This paper gives an overview of the bioeconomic modelling of marine reserves, and illustrates how economists have responded to the modelling results found in the ecological literature. The economic analysis is shown to be far more pessimistic with regards to the potential of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool, than what one finds in the purely ecological analysis, the reason being the latter's neglect of issues such as discounting and economic incentive behaviour. However, economic analysis, despite some of it being relatively advanced with regards to spatiality, is still simplistic with regards to for instance ecosystem and habitat content. A simple expansion of the existing bioeconomic models with regards to positive habitat effects of area closures is presented and analysed, showing room for improved results from marine reserve implementation as compared to the existing analysis.  相似文献
7.
Safeguarding biodiversity has been one of the most important issues in environmental and forest policies since the 1990s. In Southern Finland, decisions concerning further actions for the preservation of forest biodiversity will be made in the coming years. To support policy making, we present a multi-regional model that is applicable in determining the economically optimal regional allocation of conservation sites. Three habitat quality models are evaluated to calculate habitat quality indices used as a surrogate for a biodiversity value in a forest sector model. The scenarios presented provide information about the economic impacts of conservation choices on the forest sector. The overall economic impacts of conservation depend on its scale and regional allocation. Conserving land with high biodiversity value can have less adverse impact on the forest sector than conservation of typical commercial forest sites. When optimizing conservation set-asides, we found that set-asides targeted to certain regions possessing higher/lower than average relative share of ecologically valuable land, caused lower/higher adverse economic impacts on the forest sector. Because it is expensive to search land suitable for conservation, these regions could be respectively favoured/avoided when asking forest owners to offer their land for the new conservation program in Southern Finland, which will be based on voluntariness.  相似文献
8.
Resource equivalency analysis (REA) has become the dominant method for calculating natural resource damages for biological injuries from pollution incidents. This methodology compares resources lost as a result of an incident to benefits that can be gained from a habitat or wildlife restoration project. Compensation is evaluated in terms of resource services instead of market currency. Recently, this approach has been questioned regarding its ability to provide adequate compensation based on economic welfare principles. The following paper examines these critiques and develops a model to quantify the welfare implications of using REA when some of its implicit assumptions are violated.We focus on the situation where compensatory restoration projects provide services that are comparable to those lost as a result of an incident. We examine simulation scenarios where the public has heterogeneous preferences for resources and where resource values change over time. Using the Hicks-Kaldor criterion, we find that the traditional REA provides an acceptable approximation of aggregate compensation for a reasonably wide range of economic and biological parameter combinations.  相似文献
9.
金融生态与金融生态环境研究的演进及其述评   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
本文认为,现有研究在金融生态和金融生态环境的概念、金融生态环境的构成、金融生态环境的评价指标体系、中国城市金融生态环境的现状及改善建议等方面进行了系统探讨,未来研究需要进一步明确研究对象、拓宽研究视野、深化研究内容。  相似文献
10.
Mangroves are considered ecologicallyimportant due to their role as breedinggrounds and nursery habitats for off-shorefisheries. However, mangrove deforestationthrough conversion to shrimp aquaculturethreatens this valuable function. This paperdevelops a dynamic production functionapproach to analyze the influence of habitatchanges on an open access fishery that faces afinite elasticity of demand. The basic modelis applied to a case study of the impacts ofmangrove deforestation on the artisanal marinedemersal and shellfish fisheries in Thailand. By estimating parameters through pooledtime-series and cross-sectional data over the1983–1993 period for the five coastal zones ofSouthern Thailand, the welfare impacts ofmangrove deforestation are estimated underdifferent elasticity of demand assumptions. Under pure open access, the welfare lossesestimated for mangrove deforestation inThailand of 30 km2 annually ranged from$12,000 to $408,000 depending on theelasticity of demand.  相似文献
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