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1.
Environmental Policy and Technological Change   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8  
The relationship between technological changeand environmental policy has receivedincreasing attention from scholars and policymakers alike over the past ten years. This ispartly because the environmental impacts ofsocial activity are significantly affected bytechnological change, and partly becauseenvironmental policy interventions themselvescreate new constraints and incentives thataffect the process of technologicaldevelopments. Our central purpose in thisarticle is to provide environmental economistswith a useful guide to research ontechnological change and the analytical toolsthat can be used to explore further theinteraction between technology and theenvironment. In Part 1 of the article, weprovide an overview of analytical frameworksfor investigating the economics oftechnological change, highlighting key issuesfor the researcher. In Part 2, we turn ourattention to theoretical analysis of theeffects of environmental policy ontechnological change, and in Part 3, we focuson issues related to the empirical analysis oftechnology innovation and diffusion. Finally,we conclude in Part 4 with some additionalsuggestions for research.  相似文献
2.
文章把R&D资金的管理引入企业自主创新研究,利用我国信息技术类上市公司2002-2007年的数据考察了企业R&D资金管理与自主创新之间的关系.研究结果显示,企业自主创新水平与R&D资金管理有着重要的密切关系.在反映R&D资金管理的各要素中,连续的R&D资源投入更有利于企业自主创新,而不断的变更研发计划以及过于分散的投资研发项目则会降低自主创新的有效性.文章研究的结论对企业加强R&D资金管理,提高自主创新效率具有理论参考意义.  相似文献
3.
This paper argues that what Robert Allen has termed collectiveinvention settings (that is, settings in which competing firmsshare technological knowledge) were a crucial source of innovationduring the early phases of industrialisation. Until now thishas been very little considered in the literature, which hasfocused on the patent system as the main institutional arrangementdriving the rate of innovation. The paper presents one of thesecollective invention settings, the Cornish mining district,in detail. It studies the specific economic and technical circumstancesthat led to the emergence of this collective invention settingand analyses its consequences on the rate of technological innovation.  相似文献
4.
5.
应用基础研究类原始性创新的演化机理研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
将应用基础研究类原始性创新视为一类特殊的发明,在引入现象(规律)、原理和技术3个关键概念的基础上,对其核心环节也就是创新研究环节进行剖析,完成了此类原始性创新的重新界定,归纳了其核心环节的一般步骤。此后,由核心环节拓展到整个演化过程,从匹配的角度来阐释此类原始性创新的演化机理。最后依据其演化机理给出了若干有助于此类原始性创新研究成功率提升的建议,具体包括创新团队应该加强领域内现象(规律)、原理和技术的积累与整合,注重团队成员天赋的发挥与独特思维和工作方式的推广,充分利用前人的研究成果,以及积极吸纳两类关键性人才。  相似文献
6.
A possible declining trend for worldwide innovation   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
A comparison is made between a model of technology in which the level of technology advances exponentially without limit and a model with an economic limit. The model with an economic limit best fits data obtained from lists of events in the history of science and technology as well as the patent history in the United States. The rate of innovation peaked in the year 1873 and is now rapidly declining. We are at an estimated 85% of the economic limit of technology, and it is projected that we will reach 90% in 2018 and 95% in 2038.  相似文献
7.
股权类激励方案成本的因素分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
张彩玉 《经济经纬》2004,(3):132-134
股权激励作为调整企业经营者和所有者之间利益关系的重要手段 ,其方案的制订受多种因素的影响 ,认清这些因素如何作用于股权类激励方案成本 ,是降低代理成本的关键。  相似文献
8.
我国信息通讯技术领域专利战略分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
对我国信息通讯技术(ICT)领域在1985-2006年期间的发明专利申请情况进行了分析,重点研究了在华知名跨国公司与国内企业在15个最主要的ICT子领域的发明专利申请情况,计算了主要ICT子领域对各企业的技术重要性、各企业在ICT子领域及整体领域的技术竞争指数、各企业在ICT子领域的技术比较优势指数等。研究结果揭示了我国ICT的重要技术创新和竞争子领域;在我国整体ICT领域的竞争指数最大的公司依次为三星、华为、松下等,而国内其他公司的竞争指数都较低;在各ICT子领域最具技术竞争力的公司几乎都是发明专利申请量最多的公司。研究进一步表明,并非所有公司都能在对其最具技术重要性的领域保持技术竞争优势。本土ICT企业要缩小与跨国公司的技术差距,必须重视对重要技术领域的选择并加大创新投入,实施专利战略,以保持自身在这些领域的相对技术比较优势。  相似文献
9.
A comparison of the life cycle plots for the production and patent activity for several materials indicates that the two life cycle plots may be correlated to such an extent that they may be superimposed to a large degree, for all growth-stages, simply by an origin shift. Over fifty metallic and non-metallic materials have been studied. This origin shift may be indicative of the presence of Stage III (high-growth stage). The drive force ratio for innovation-enhanced supply also scales with the origin shift. When the drive force ratio is equal to one, the materials in their Stage III life, are balanced in the amount of resources which impact production and patents. One of the key findings is that materials may be grouped into two groups depending on their drive ratio and the lag ratio in the data sets of the production and patent activity. In the first group, innovation is unable to influence the production activity and consequently materials tend to slide towards Stage IV (i.e. the stage of low average growth with high oscillation) regardless of the fact that patents may impact unit production significantly in this group. The existence of a Stage V (final death stage) is also discussed. It appears that materials that have been recognized to be highly toxic are particularly prone to a Stage V type behavior.  相似文献
10.
权利归属是国防专利制度的核心问题,发明人的核心利益是智力成果收益问题。当前,国防领域职务发明权利归属不清,违背了智力财产私权性的法律原则,造成的结果是发明人失去了产权,国家损失了国防专利制度可能带来的收益,解决问题的关键是跳出“非此即彼”的权利归属思维定势,将国防专利权分为所有权、使用权、收益权和处置权,并在此基础上进行权利分割。国家拥有所有权,发明人拥有使用权和处置权,国家、单位和发明人共同拥有收益权,这既体现了法律的公平正义,又符合经济规律,做到了权、责、利相统一。  相似文献
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