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Operational Research and the environment   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
The discipline of Operational Research (OR) is primarily concerned with improving the effectiveness and efficiency of decision processes. These processes take place everywhere in society: industry, banking, agriculture, government, politics. Frequent use of mathematical optimization models is typical of OR. Since the early '80s these models are increasingly packaged in a user-friendly way, as Decision Support Systems. In the following we will illustrate how OR can be used to describe and solve a number of environmental problems.  相似文献
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首先研究了福建省大额支付系统的业务发展特点,指出大额支付系统业务量和经济发展密切相关,是居民经济活动的客观反映;接着探讨了各地区中心城市的大额支付系统业务量,发现各城市经济活跃状况相差较大,发展较不平衡;最后,结合实际,给出了政策建议。  相似文献
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文章以获取交通运输的最短路径问题为例,深入探讨如何将计算机网络、数据库、程序设计等相关技术与运筹学理论相结合,开发计算机辅助决策系统,为网络用户提供科学、方便、快捷的辅助决策服务,以实现工作效率的提升与成本的降低。  相似文献
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探讨商品分类法与战略型采购管理在农机企业中的应用规范。方法:用运筹学的原理,结合造纸企业日常生产所需的商品在市场上采购的难易程度、技术要求、宏观环境以及企业的支出能力等,对不同的商品实行不同的采购管理规范。结果:农机企业日常生产所需的商品品种多、价值差别大、供应渠道复杂,符合运用商品分类法与战略型采购管理。结论:农机企业运用商品分类法与战略型采购管理规范可提高管理水平,提高采购质量,降低成本,提高经济效益。  相似文献
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在本文中,我们研究了一个生成K条满足一组约束条件的最短路问题。为了求解此问题,我们设计了一个结构化分支策略,将此问题划分为最多必|N|个子问题,这里|N|表示网络中的结点数。每个子问题通过一个网络修正步骤均可转化为一个带约束的最短路问题(constraint shortest path problem,CSP)。当这些约束条件满足所谓的可分性质时,子问题便可得到进一步简化。基于这个结构化分支策略,我们针对一个需要考虑资源和无回路约束的应用问题设计了一个专门的算法。数据实验表明,我们的算法十分有效而稳定。  相似文献
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In 2001, the All-Ireland Gaelic Football competition changed from being a singleknockout tournament to a quasi-double knockout competition. Similar natural experiments in economics and operational research theory suggest such a change should reduce the competitive balance in the competition. Using a Hirschmann–Herfindahl Index measure of concentration and a bootstrapping approach, we confirm that the new structure leads to a less competitive outcome and, importantly, this outcome is less uncertain. Our bootstrapped results show that in the long run, with larger samples, there is less competitive balance in the new competition structure than in the older structure competition structure. Finally, we also consider a stochastic dominance approach to evaluating the change in tournament structure, but the low power due to the presence of ties in our small sample leads to an inconclusive outcome.  相似文献
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Recent advances in communications and satellite technology now make it possible to provide large, synoptic imagery of the earth's surface at relatively low cost. This paper reports on acase study that was designed to estimate the benefits that might be realized by rangeland managers from an Earth Resources Survey system. Information needs and current practices are first discussed and then related to available remote sensing and data distribution techniques. The analysis showed that cost savings from an applications system would be broadly evident in the areas of resource re-allocation, range productivity, and livestock management. Depending upon the assumptions concerning the discount rate and factors affecting technological diffusion, total benefits were estimated to range from $38.7 million to $115.4 million over 10-year operational period.  相似文献
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