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1.
We develop an optimizing life‐cycle model of retirement with perfect capital markets. We show that longer healthy life expectancy usually leads to later retirement, but with an elasticity less than unity. We calibrate our model using data from the US and find that, over the last century, the effect of rising incomes, which promote early retirement, has dominated the effect of rising lifespans. Our model predicts continuing declines in the optimal retirement age, despite rising life expectancy, provided the rate of real wage growth remains as high as in the last century.  相似文献   
2.
Prior research on corporate innovation highlights the importance of accessing external knowledge from other firms and universities. However, survey evidence indicates that product users are perhaps the most important source of external knowledge. We build on existing theory to identify the conditions under which user knowledge contributes to corporate innovation and when the benefits will be greatest. Using a panel dataset of medical device companies and their collaborative efforts with innovative physicians, we find evidence that inventive collaborations with users enhance corporate product innovation and that the benefits are greatest in new technology areas and in the generation of radical innovations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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This paper investigates the effects on prices of nutrition and health claims for foodstuffs, in addition to other attributes, using fruit beverages as a case study. The model estimation is based on revealed purchasing behaviour for fruit beverages in the north‐east of Italy. Applying an hedonic price model, the price of a product is explained as a function of product attributes. The model estimate identifies the implicit retail‐market‐level price of specific attributes such as nutrition and health claims, ceteris paribus. Nutrition and health claims significantly affect retail prices. Our findings suggest that retail price response to nutrition and health claims differs in relation to other product attributes, showing a strong reduction of price variation among flavours when such benefits are claimed on the label.  相似文献   
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This paper characterizes the socioeconomic determinants of child health using height‐for‐age z‐score (HAZ), a long‐run measure of chronic nutritional deficiency. We construct a panel data that follows children between ages 3 and 59 months in 1993 through the 1997 and 2000 waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. We use this data to identify the various child‐level, household‐level and community‐level factors that affect children's health. Our findings indicate that household income has a large and statistically significant role in explaining improvements in HAZ. We also find a strong positive association between parental height and HAZ. At the community level, we find that provision of electricity and the availability of paved roads are positively associated with improvements in HAZ. Finally, in comparison to community‐level factors, household‐level characteristics play a large role in explaining the variation in HAZ. These findings suggest that policies that address the demand‐side constraints have greater potential to improve children's health outcomes in the future.  相似文献   
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本文从分析社区医疗保障现状、其面对的主要问题及其主要原因出发,认为社区医疗体系的发展需要商业健康保险介入,并有针对性地分析了商业健康保险介入社区医疗体系发展的意义、保障模式选择、多方面作用和多角度可行性,详细阐述了商业健康保险介入社区医疗领域的主要思路。  相似文献   
9.
医疗保险风险调剂机制在全民医保制度构建中的应用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
何毅 《保险研究》2011,(9):31-37
自荷兰、德国等国发端的医疗保险风险调剂机制在世界“全民医保”浪潮中越来越受到重视,并逐渐成为各国政府整合分散医保基金的重要手段。我国以“全民医保”为目标的新一轮医改是建立在财政分权、县域统筹等制度背景下的,医疗保险基金“碎片化”问题十分突出。科学引入医疗保险风险调剂机制,改变现有粗放的“调剂金”管理模式,有助于我们既兼...  相似文献   
10.
商业健康保险最能体现保险的社会管理功能,在我国多层次医疗保障体系建设中发挥着愈加明显的重要作用。本文从促进健康保险发展的行业监管角度,提出应将商业健康保险作为与产险、寿险并列的第三领域实施单独监管。本文详细分析了健康保险的专业经营特点,阐述了对健康保险实施单独监管的必要性,明确了单独监管的基本内容并提出了相关政策建议。  相似文献   
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