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世界企业社会责任研究与实践概述   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
文章对当今世界企业社会责任领域的学术研究和实践情况进行概述。对企业社会责任研究领域的基本概念、理论、该领域研究的主要课题等进行简要介绍。对实践领域中企业社会责任活动的基本争议,企业社会责任活动的动因,企业社会责任与经济、政治和环境的关系,企业社会责任量具的发展,国际社会企业社会责任发展状况等进行概述。  相似文献
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三本院校作为一种与公办院校培养人才模式不同的特殊高等院校,其《高级财务管理》教学方面应基于学校和学生的特点,重点培养学生的应用能力,使学生能够既懂理论又善于将理论运用于实践。目前,三本院校在《高级财务管理》教学中普遍存在教材建设落后、教学方式单一、案例教学效果不明显、考核方式过于死板等问题。针对以上问题,从完善教材建设、实行多样化的教学方式、案例式教学与启发式教学相结合、考核方式合理化等方面提出加强三本院校《高级财务管理》教学改革的几点建议。  相似文献
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社会发展对本科毕业生提出了比以往更高的要求,毕业生不仅仅是从课堂获得一些专业知识,社会对学生提出的“零适应期”,要求学生在离开学校前,应该具备一定的科研工作能力。从加强专业课程的实践环节、开放实验室平台的建设、导师制、学生参与教师的科研教学团队活动以及开展科技论文竞赛活动等多方位教学环节出发,对提高学生的科研能力培养进行了一些探索与思考。  相似文献
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Objective: To compare the pharmacoeconomic guidelines in South Africa (SA) with other middle- and high-income countries.

Methods: A comparative review of key features of the pharmacoeconomic guidelines in SA was undertaken using the Comparative Table of Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines developed by the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, and published country-level pharmacoeconomics guidelines. A random sample of guidelines in high- and middle-income countries were analyzed if data on all key features were available. Key features of the pharmacoeconomic guidelines in SA were compared with those in other countries, and divergent features were identified and elaborated.

Results: Five upper middle-income countries (Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Malaysia, and Mexico), one lower middle-income country (Egypt), and six high-income countries (Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Taiwan, and the Netherlands) were analyzed. The pharmacoeconomic guidelines in SA differ in important areas when compared with other countries. In SA, the study perspective and costs are limited to private health-insurance companies, complex modelling is discouraged and models require pre-approval, equity issues are not explicitly stated, a budget impact analysis is not required, and pharmacoeconomic submissions are voluntary.

Conclusions: Future updates to the pharmacoeconomic guidelines in SA may include a societal perspective with limitations, incentivize complex and transparent models, and integrate equity issues. The pharmacoeconomic guidelines could be improved by addressing conflicting objectives with policies on National Health Insurance, incentivize private health insurance companies to disclose reimbursement data, and require the inclusion of a budget impact analysis in all pharmacoeconomic submissions. Further research is also needed on the impact of mandatory pharmacoeconomic submissions in middle-income countries.  相似文献

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