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This article analyzes the effects of foreign patent rights on U.S. bilateral exports. The empirical analysis covers three highly disaggregated drug industries over three decades. We estimate bilateral trade equations for each industry using cross-country data on the strength of national patent rights. The findings show that strong foreign patent rights enhance the market power of U.S. drug exporters across countries with weak imitative abilities. Alternatively, strong foreign patent rights stimulate the market expansion of U.S. drug exports across countries with strong imitative abilities. These effects are larger in magnitude during the 1980–90s relative to the 1970s.  相似文献
2.
This article examines the factors that account for agricultural biotechnology patenting success among universities using a dynamic count data model. It builds a theoretical and econometric model to capture the inherently dynamic and nonlinear process of technological innovation, wherein a feedback mechanism from previous success partially determines current patent counts. The econometric estimates reveal the importance to agricultural biotechnology patent production of land grant infrastructure, quality faculty, patent-oriented technology transfer offices, as well as dynamic feedback effects.  相似文献
3.
地方专利展示交易平台当前普遍存在基础技术资源质量不高、供给推动型模式与市场脱节、交易方式单调、专业中介服务机构服务水平低下、缺乏对外交流与联系、地方特色不明显等问题。借鉴英国BTG的成功经验,平台的未来发展策略应当以提升技术产品质量和服务质量为基础,积极推动市场化运作改革,通过创新交易方式和服务手段促进服务的全方位化,同时加强专利经纪人队伍培养,根据本地区产业优势努力打造平台特色。  相似文献
4.
Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of the patent system on industry structure. Using firm-level patent data for firms in plant biotechnology, we develop a measure of patent enforceability. Duration models show that patent statistics are useful predictors of the timing of consolidation and that patent enforceability is an important factor influencing the likelihood of consolidation. Acquisitions in plant biotechnology may be motivated by the enforcement of patent rights when firms have overlapping technologies; some merger activity may be explained by attempts to avoid mutually blocking technology, as exemplified by the case of Roundup Ready corn.  相似文献
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罗泽真 《林业经济问题》2007,27(4):307-309,314
生物遗传资源是生物科学研究的重要基础,是人类生存和经济社会可持续发展战略性物资。生物遗传资源的获取和惠益分享与知识产权法律制度有着密切的联系。当前,世界各国采用的遗传资源知识产权保护类型,主要有专利保护、植物育种者权利保护和农民权保护。中国宜采用组合保护的方式,确认遗传资源为国家所有,确立遗传资源权制度、植物品种权利制度以及专利制度,以加强遗传资源的保护。  相似文献
6.
There has been a sharp increase in the number of patented agricultural varieties from public universities in the United States. We develop an experiment to examine the revenue stream to universities from licensing plant‐based innovations. In the experiment we asked subjects to bid for access for a patented input that would be used to produce a differentiated product; treatments were employed to solicit bids that were financed by fees, royalties, and a combination of the two mechanisms under exclusive and nonexclusive contracts. The literature studying the economics of downstream duopoly competition in quantity suggests that revenues for the innovator would be greatest under a nonexclusive contract that uses fees and royalties. In our experiment we allow more than two firms to obtain access to the patent in the nonexclusive treatments, and our empirical results suggest that innovator revenues are greatest when royalties are used alone in a nonexclusive contract.  相似文献
7.
Major legislative, legal, and technological changes paved the way for a period of remarkable growth in the patenting of life science research by U.S. universities in the 1980s and 1990s. Using a multiple-output cost framework and two decades of panel data on ninety-six universities, this article examines whether economies of scope and/or scale are present in university production of three major life science research outputs: journal articles, patents, and doctorates. The results show strong evidence of economies of scale in life science research production with mixed evidence of economies of scope between articles and patents.  相似文献
8.
Open Variety Rights refer to the removal of the conditions attached to the usage of plants in agriculture, and to an analogy with open licensing in informatics that is notably different from the one that is taking shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. This paper argues for the open licensing of plants as part of a response to the commodification of DNA; rather than a singular focus on farming or source code, this implies an analogy that aims at the removal of restrictions, whether as seeds, biodiversity, genetic sequences or DNA in informatics formats. First, the commodification of plants will be conceptualized. Second, the proposal for open licensing for varieties of crops will be discussed. Third, examples of the introduction of open licensing in the life sciences will be examined in relation to the potential to reformulate the definition of ‘openness’ to support those who wish to live and work with plants on their own terms.  相似文献
9.
Technology and innovation play an increasingly important role in the economic development of both developed and developing countries. We investigate how policy and market factors influence firms’ (or other potential inventors’) decisions on innovation or imitation by developing a model that emphasizes expected market size, appropriability and technological opportunity. We empirically test the model using provincial pesticide innovation data from a rapidly developing country, China. We find that the government encouraged local innovation by opening regions to more international trade, by increasing investments in public research and education, and by strengthening intellectual property right (IPR) enforcement to meet its WTO TRIPS obligations. Moreover, while IPR enforcement and increases in market size are important in encouraging innovation, empirical evidence is mixed as inventors respond to these factors differently. Policies to increase expected market size could increase copying rather than inducing R&D investments, and extended patent life may reinforce the original standing of infringers as well as inventors.  相似文献
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