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1.
This study investigates how political regimes affect health conditions such as infant and child mortality rates and life expectancy using data from 180 countries observed between 1960 and 2013. Panel quantile regression is used to examine the effects at different intervals throughout the distribution of health outcomes. The estimation results indicate that democracy has significant positive effects on health outcomes and that its impacts are greater when health outcomes are worse. These results are robust to different democracy and health indices. The effects of different types of democracies and dictatorships are also considered, that is parliamentary, mixed (semi-presidential) and presidential democracies, and civilian, military and royal dictatorships. The parliamentary form of democracy has the largest positive impact on health outcomes at the worst quantile of health outcomes, although the difference in the impacts of the three types of democracies is not necessarily large. Furthermore, all types of dictatorships have a negative impact on health outcomes, with military dictatorship having the worst outcome when health outcomes are worse. Finally, the effects of democratization on health outcomes are significantly positive when the health outcomes are worse.  相似文献   
2.
This study examines the sources of labor productivity growth dynamics in Japan (1970–2010) and investigates the extent to which Japanese economic performance has been affected by Baumol's growth disease (BGD). We find that BGD silently undermines Japanese economic growth. However, the magnitude is miniscule, and consequently the aggregate labor productivity growth rate has not been decreasing monotonically. We also explore how BGD is arising and why it is small in the Japanese economy. BGD is weak because (1) the positive Baumol growth effect is also working in certain services sectors and (2) BGD is not a durable phenomenon: even if a sector begins to suffer from BGD, it is likely to recover quickly.  相似文献   
3.
This article tests the hypotheses of convergence to a single level of total factor productivity (TFP), and a steady state of TFP growth rate in China’s agricultural sector. Based on multilateral TFP estimates we found that China’s agricultural sector has rebounded in recent years from a slower TFP growth in the 2005–2007 period. While convergence test results confirm a “catch-up” effect that provinces with lower TFP levels tend to grow faster than others, estimated rates of β convergence are conditional on how we capture the heterogeneity effect across regions. The rates of β convergence range from 0.016 to 0.039 under different model specifications. Estimates show that higher growth rates of educational attainment, R&D, and intermediate goods density (per unit of labor) can enhance TFP growth. Unfortunately, there is no evidence of an overall σ convergence, indicating that TFP levels are not converging except in the South region. It implies that to catch up with leading provinces, it would require extra efforts for those lagging behind by increasing their region-specific research investment, promoting rural educational attainment, and enhancing embodied technical change.  相似文献   
4.
The hypothesis that a stock market price index follows a random walk is tested for 11 African stock markets, Botswana, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, Tunisia and Zimbabwe using joint variance ratio tests with finite-sample critical values, over the period beginning in January 2000 and ending in September 2006. The iid random walk hypothesis is rejected in all 11 markets. In four stock markets, Egypt, Nigeria, Tunisia and South Africa, weekly returns are a martingale difference sequence. Liquidity is an important factor which contributes to whether a stock market follows a random walk.  相似文献   
5.
This paper presents a new approximation to the exact sampling distribution of the instrumental variables estimator in simultaneous equations models. It differs from many of the approximations currently available, Edgeworth expansions for example, in that it is specifically designed to work well when the concentration parameter is small. The approximation is remarkable in that simultaneously: (i) it has an extremely simple final form; (ii) in situations for which it is designed it is typically much more accurate than is the large sample normal approximation; and (iii) it is able to capture most of those stylized facts that characterize lack of identification and weak instrument scenarios. The development leading to the approximation is also novel in that it introduces techniques of some independent interest not seen in this literature hitherto.  相似文献   
6.
By most objective standards, women's jobs are worse than men's, yet women report higher levels of job satisfaction than do men. This paper uses a recent large-scale British survey to document the extent of this gender differential for eight measures of job satisfaction and to evaluate the proposition that identical men and women in identical jobs should be equally satisfied. Neither the different jobs that men and women do, their different work values, nor sample selection account for the gender satisfaction differential. The paper's proposed explanation appeals to the notion of relative well-being, especially relative to workers' expectations. An identical man and woman with the same jobs and expectations would indeed report identical job satisfaction, but women's expectations are argued to be lower than men's. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the gender satisfaction differential disappears for the young, the higher-educated, professionals and those in male-dominated workplaces, for all of whom there is less likely to be a gender difference in job expectations.  相似文献   
7.
党的十六届四中全会通过的《中共中央关于加强党的执政能力建设的决定》,主题鲜明,论述深刻,内涵丰富,重点突出,是指导全党担当起执政兴国历史使命的行动纲领,是对马克思主义党建理论的创新和发展。加强党的执政能力建设,必须充分认识党的执政能力建设的重要性和紧迫性,正确把握党的执政能力建设的主要经验、指导思想、总体目标和主要任务。提高党的执政能力关键在于加强党的建设。贯彻《决定》精神,联系高校实际,从思想上、作风上、组织上和制度上全面加强高校党的建设,不断增强领导干部的执政意识,提高领导水平,才能更好地完成高校的根本任务。  相似文献   
8.
In many situations the individuals who can generate some output must enter a contest for appropriating this output. This paper analyses the investment incentives of such agents and the role of incumbency advantages in the contest. Depending on the advantages, an increase in the productivity of the investment can decrease or increase the amount of investment. The results are applied to autocrats’ investment behavior and job specific investment in organizations.  相似文献   
9.
We analyze a class of ‘large group’ Chamberlinian monopolistic competition models by applying different concepts of functional separability to the same set of first-order conditions for utility maximization. We show that multiplicatively quasi-separable (MQS) functions yield ‘constant relative risk aversion’ (CRRA), and, therefore ‘constant elasticity of substitution’ (CES), functions, whereas additively quasi-separable (AQS) functions yield ‘constant absolute risk aversion’ (CARA) functions. We then show that the CARA specification sheds new light on: (i) pro-competitive effects, i.e., profit-maximizing prices are decreasing in the mass of competing firms; and (ii) a competitive limit, i.e., profit-maximizing prices converge to marginal costs when the mass of competing firms becomes arbitrarily large.  相似文献   
10.
新世纪前20年我国经济建设的宏观布局   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在本世纪头20年的经济建设宏观布局中,要抓住现代化进程的重点,走新型工业化之路;解决全面建设小康社会的难点,繁荣农村经济;调整地区经济协调发展的均衡点,积极推进西部大开发;磨合国内经济与国际经济的对接点,全面提高对外开放水平;紧扣经济建设的根本出发点和归宿点,不断改善人民生活;优化发展与改革的聚合点,革除一切影响发展的体制性弊端。  相似文献   
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