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1.
Firms in emerging economies are faced with multiple, incompatible institutional forces in their environmental activities. Which of these forces will be dominant and instantiated within an organization is partly determined by the social relationships that a firm maintains with external actors. This paper investigates the relationship between board social ties and the level of environmental responsibility undertaken by firms in China, an emerging economy, by categorizing board social ties into three types in terms of the three isomorphic forces in the institutional field (coercive, normative and mimetic). Drawing on institutional and agency theories, using a sample of listed firms in environmentally sensitive industries, and a generalized least squares regression method, the results provide empirical evidence that ties that are linked to coercive and normative forces (i.e., political organizations and universities) are related to a higher level of environmental responsibility; however, those that are linked to mimetic forces (i.e., industrial peers) have a negative association with environmental responsibility, which is mitigated by CEO power. These findings suggest that the heterogeneous effects of board social ties on environmental responsibilities experienced by firms in a context of environmentalism are at an early stage.  相似文献   
2.
ABSTRACT

The paper presents a new combined annual cost of living and consumer price index for Norway covering 1492–2018, indicating that Norwegian price history has to be revised. The new historical price index is constructed on a significantly richer data material, which also makes it cover a longer period of price history than the existing one. This is made possible by the compilation of quantitative data from numerous sources, mostly originating from the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with grain prices stretching back to 1492. The new combined cost of living and consumer price index is constructed by a Laspeyres approach with shifting baskets for commodities and expenditure groups.

The index makes it possible to follow annual inflation and deflation in Norway for a period of 526 years. When comparing to existing indices, the new series reveals that revisions are needed in Norwegian price history. These make the historical price development more in line with those of the neighbouring countries and more in line with the pattern of wholesale prices.  相似文献   
3.
In 2015, Swiss voters had the opportunity to impose a tax on the super rich in a popular vote and thereby fund a redistributive policy. However, a large majority voted against its seemingly obvious self-interest and rejected the tax. We propose an explanation for this puzzling outcome, bridging the usually separate behavioralist and institutionalist perspectives on the politics of inequality. We start from the observation that political economy tends to neglect processes of preference formation. Theorising preferences as socially constructed, we show that interest groups played a major role in shaping the outcome of the vote. Business frames were multiplied through allied parties and the media and had a major impact on individual voting behaviour. In addition, we demonstrate that interest groups representing business interests derive the content of their communication from business’s structurally privileged position in the capitalist economy. Specifically, creating uncertainty about possible perverse effects of government policies on jobs and growth is a powerful tool to undermine popular support. Frames based on this structural power ultimately explain why the Swiss refrained from ‘soaking the rich.’  相似文献   
4.
This paper examines how power affects consumers’ responses to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives of luxury brands. The results of three studies show that high‐power individuals evaluated a luxury brand's CSR campaign more positively than low‐power individuals. High‐power individuals viewed CSR activities as being more fluent than low‐power individuals. This study further demonstrates that power influences consumers’ responses to nonluxury brand's CSR activities. Low‐power individuals, who are more receptive to warmth, evaluated nonluxury brand's CSR more favorably rather than high‐power individuals.  相似文献   
5.
我们已经进入了一个全新的大数据信息化时代,充满了更多的机遇与挑战。大数据及数字经济的出现极大程度地改变了传统技术及工作思维的方式。数字经济是继工业和农业之后的又一大经济形态,为社会的经济增长提供了新的动力。通过分析电网行业传统的科学技术及作业方式,论文简要阐述了基于大数据信息化发展下电网的影响,并认为信息化技术的发展对于数字经济有着至关重要的影响及重要性。最后论文讨论了数字经济发展存在的问题及方向。  相似文献   
6.
It is a wide-held assumption that professional development and change within purchasing and supply management (PSM) organisations can be explained and guided by a maturity model. In this paper the guidance which the maturity model concept offers to understand a PSM organisation's performance is assessed. The methodology is based on the outcomes of a literature review of PSM maturity models, development of an organisational change framework and the learning from three qualitative case studies. An alternative understanding of the development of the PSM organisation is offered through an organisational change framework, composing 1) movement transitions, 2) scalability of change, 3) acceptability of change, and 4) the substantive element of change. The research found that extant PSM maturity models are too rigid for PSM managers to apply, and although maturity models are commonly accepted in PSM literature, in practice, they may produce the opposite effect of what is promised. The PSM maturity models suggest that their application will lead to increased status and influence of PSM within the organisation; expectations that may not be met. PSM organisations’ change processes are subjected to a range of situational and contextual power relations which must be considered in order to advance the specific PSM organisation roles and responsibilities.  相似文献   
7.
Luby变换(Luby Transform,LT)码作为信道编码应用于电力线通信(Power Line Communication,PLC),可实现电信号的可靠传输。度分布对LT码编译码性能的影响至关重要。为了得到更优的度分布,首先调整二进制指数分布(Binary Exponential Distribution,BED)中的度数比例,获得一种译码性能更优的改进的二进制指数分布(Improved BED,IBED)。然后,根据IBED在冗余度较小时译码成功率高,而冗余度增大后鲁棒孤子分布(Robust Soliton Distribution,RSD)的译码性能表现更佳的特点,通过求和归一化的方式将IBED与RSD两种度分布的优势进行有机结合,提出一种新型二进制鲁棒孤子分布(Binary RSD,BRSD)。仿真结果表明,与其他方法及传统的RSD相比,采用新度分布进行LT编码,可明显降低译码开销,并节约编译码耗时。将新型度分布应用于基于LT码的PLC系统中,能有效地抑制PLC信道中各种噪声对电信号的干扰,并提高通信效率。  相似文献   
8.
董事会中心主义的确立,董事义务与责任体系的完备,使得对董事利益的保护成为公司经营管理效率提高的必要前提。如何建立符合中国实际的董事利益保护机制是摆在法学研究者面前一个紧迫而重要的课题。  相似文献   
9.
诗歌是情感的艺术,诗人把内隐的丰富多变的情感外化为磁性的诗化语言,使之传承、发展与升华。阐述了诗歌情感的层次特性及在语言、押韵、节奏、意境等方面的表现,力图唤起人们对诗歌情感内在层次的关注。  相似文献   
10.
馆长对图书馆的事业发展至关重要.探讨了图书馆馆长治理图书馆的非权力影响力,即指依靠馆长自身的素养,即德、才、仁、情等因素,使馆长更具向心力、凝聚力,从而推动图书馆工作的有效地运作,促进图书馆事业的蓬勃发展.  相似文献   
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