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1.
Despite the importance of good collaborative relationships in interorganisational projects, clients and contractors often develop adversarial relationships due to perceptual distance about key project issues. In this case study research, we investigated how perceptual distance emerges and changes over time, and how the collaborative relationship between client and contractor develops alongside these dynamics. In this exploration, we built upon agency theory and stewardship theory as complementary perspectives for understanding client-contractor collaborative relationships. We gathered quantitative and qualitative data in two projects, conducting three assessments in about one year. We found that perceptual distance increased and decreased over time, and that a reduction was typically associated with the collaborative relationship being characterized by stewardship rather than agency. These findings suggest that a regular assessment and evaluation of partners’ perceptions of critical project issues is warranted to timely detect and counteract perceptual distance. Moreover, partners would best adopt a stewardship orientation to reduce perceptual distance, although this may take considerable effort given the distributive nature of many pre-project negotiations.  相似文献   
2.
This paper constructs alternative balanced scorecards based on high‐performance work system (HPWS) and employment relations system (ERS) models. The models are depicted and compared in diagrams and used as framework skeletons for building separate HPWS and ERS scorecards, intended to provide a detailed data picture of the operational health and performance of an organization's employment/HR system and its operations, processes, and inputs/outputs. The scorecards are filled in with nationally representative data from 2,000+ U.S. workplaces using more than 50 employment/HR indicators, as reported by separate panels of managers and employees. The indicators for each workplace are aggregated into an overall HR/employment system score, ranked from low‐to‐high, and graphed as frequency distributions. These distributions provide a unique snapshot picture of the mean and dispersion of the state of employment relations and HR system performance for companies across the United State. They also reveal that “models matter” since the HPWS and ERS scorecards provide distinctly different evaluation assessments.  相似文献   
3.
In this paper, we develop a multilayer network structure and reveal the relationship between network structure and systemic risk. Unlike many previous studies, our model considers both liability and cross-holding of shares between financial institutions simultaneously. We propose a new systemic risk measurement by exploring the dynamic mechanism of financial contagion in the multilayer network. We display the network structure of Chinese financial institutions, including connectivity and diversity, and identify the systemic importance of them. We demonstrate that the multilayer network plays a non-linear role in financial risk spreading. Using the panel regression model and several experiment evidences, we show that the systemic risk can be explained more effectively by the linkage diversity more than the connectivity at both the institutional level and the system level. Our results highlight the importance of considering contagion mechanisms that go beyond a simple single-layer network structure.  相似文献   
4.
Today, increased competition between organizations has led them to seek a better understanding of customer behavior through identifying valuable customers. Customers’ expectations about the price and quality of products and services play an important role in their selection process. In online businesses, competition and price differences between suppliers is high, so discounts will attract different customers. As a result, discounts and the frequency and amount of purchases can lead to better understanding of customer behavior. Customer segmentation and analysis is essential for identifying groups of customers. Hence, this study uses a model based on RFM called RdFdMd, in which d is the level of discount used to analyze customer purchase behavior and the importance of discounts on customers’ purchasing behavior and organizational profitability. The CRISP-DM and k-mean algorithm were used for clustering. The results indicate that using the RdFdMd model achieves better customer clustering and valuation, and discounts were identified as an important criterion for customer purchases.  相似文献   
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6.
This paper proposes a multivariate distance nonlinear causality test (MDNC) using the partial distance correlation in a time series framework. Partial distance correlation as an extension of the Brownian distance correlation calculates the distance correlation between random vectors X and Y controlling for a random vector Z. Our test can detect nonlinear lagged relationships between time series, and when integrated with machine learning methods it can improve the forecasting power. We apply our method as a feature selection procedure and combine it with the support vector machine and random forests algorithms to study the forecast of the main energy financial time series (oil, coal, and natural gas futures). It shows substantial improvement in forecasting the fuel energy time series in comparison to the classical Granger causality method in time series.  相似文献   
7.
This paper presents goal commitment as one stage of a multidimensional goal striving process that affects feedback acquisition, processing, and use during the achievement of performance goals. Specifically, this paper argues that higher goal commitment leads to more effective acquisition, processing, and use of feedback that in turn fosters higher performance than does lower goal commitment. To provide a preliminary test of this proposition, data from an earlier field study conducted by the author and colleagues [J. Occup. Organ. Psychol. 72 (1999) 107] were used to examine the moderating effects of goal commitment on the relationship between perceived task feedback amount and work performance of 196 rehabilitation counselors. Results were consistent with this proposed interaction, as perceived task feedback amount had a positive linear relationship with work performance for higher goal commitment rehabilitation counselors and a negative linear relationship with performance for lower goal commitment counselors. The discussion urges researchers to broaden their views of goal commitment beyond the goal difficulty–performance relationship and to devote more attention to moderators of the feedback–performance relationship. Directions for future research and practical implications are also discussed.  相似文献   
8.
入世以来两岸经贸关系发展中的问题及其影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
李计广 《亚太经济》2008,12(1):92-95
入世6年来,两岸经贸快速发展,但台湾在祖国大陆贸易和利用外资中的地位不断下降。两岸经贸关系至今仍未实现正常化,这对两岸经济发展均带来不利的影响。  相似文献   
9.
中俄关系经历了苏联时期和后苏联时期两个大的时期以及结盟、对立、关系正常化和不断提升与发展四个阶段,迄今已经成为面向21世纪的战略协作伙伴关系.这种关系本质上是双方国家战略利益相互借重的关系,在发展双边关系中,要扩大彼此国家利益的共同性,理性认识和妥善处理彼此国家利益的层次性和差异性,不断夯实战略协作伙伴关系的物质基础和社会基础.  相似文献   
10.
语言与文化的关系及了解文化的策略   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
语言是学习文化的主要工具,人在学习和运用语言的过程中获得整个文化;文化知识影响到语言学习者的各个学习阶段,对学习者变得越来越重要.文化教学的策略是创造一个真实的教室环境等.  相似文献   
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