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1.
One of the objectives of agricultural policy worldwide concerns the support of farm income. Common Agricultural Policy direct payments (DPs) are the main instruments to support farm income in the European Union. This article addresses their role in the concentration of farm income. This is done by calculating the Gini coefficient and its disaggregation in a large sample of Italian farms in the period between 2006 and 2007. Although this approach has been used to develop ex‐post analysis in previous studies, this article is innovative given that it is used here in an ex ante analysis aimed at evaluating the likely impact of a recent reform proposal. This latter requests changing the current model to a regional model of DPs application to make payment rates (i.e., payment per hectare) homogeneous among farms in the same region. The analysis shows that DPs and farm incomes are both very concentrated but that DPs allow for an income concentration reduction in Italian farms. The shift to a regional implementation reduces DPs concentration and, to a limited extent, farm income concentration. Of the considered regionalization scenarios, those that redistribute DPs among regions are the most effective in reducing concentration. The extension of the Gini considered approach to an ex ante setting seems effective because it provides insights that could feed the policy debate regarding the forthcoming reform.  相似文献   
2.
This paper analyzes seasonality in the United Kingdom, specifically the English regions in relation to tourists' place of origin and main travel motivation. The method used is a decomposition of the Gini index, which provides relative marginal effects that facilitate the identification of market segments open to counter-seasonal marketing efforts. This method has been combined with a graphical multivariate technique (biplot), which groups segments according to their seasonality characteristics. Seasonal patterns associated with particular segments differ significantly when studied on a disaggregated basis. Therefore, an adequate level of disaggregation is essential in the design of counter-seasonal strategies. Although this study focuses on British destinations, this methodology could be used as a control and monitoring measure in the regional analysis of any destination, facilitating regular adjustment of regional tourism marketing campaigns to minimize seasonality effects, specifically by targeting the types of tourists less prone to seasonality.  相似文献   
3.
京津冀地区农产品集聚及时空演变特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
[目的]基于1980—2015分5年1期的京津冀地区各县市播种总面积,以及14类农产品播种面积、产量等数据。研究京津冀地区各农产品的集聚程度、集聚结构稳定性以及集聚的空间分布与转移,为政府因地制宜地制定农业政策,农产品加工企业的选址提供数据支持与参考。[方法]综合运用区位商、基尼系数、产业集中率以及重心分析法,分析京津冀地区农业生产的地理集聚和时空演变特征。[结果](1)稻谷、大豆、薯类、棉花、果园、水产和禽蛋的集聚度在不断地增强; 小麦、玉米、油料、肉类和林业的集聚度保持相对稳定; 蔬菜和牛奶的集聚度在不断地降低。(2)SQ与Q>1两者总体呈反向变化,即Q>1的值减小,农作物SQ值增加,集聚程度增强;Q>1的值增加,农作物SQ值减小,集聚程度降低。(3)不同行业农产品的集聚度高低为:水产业>林业>畜牧业>经济作物(含蔬菜和果园)>粮食作物,且经济作物和粮食作物的集聚度在不断的增强。(4)各农产品的生产结构稳定性大小排列:玉米>水产>小麦>蔬菜>果园>稻谷>牛奶>大豆>肉类>薯类>油料>林产品>棉花>禽蛋。[结论]京津冀地区农产品集聚度总体在提高,少数农产品的集聚度在降低; 各农产品生产重心总体朝着京津冀外围转移。  相似文献   
4.
This paper examines the proposition, set out in The Spirit Level, that inequality is associated with high levels of obesity. It reviews existing literature and uses British Household Panel Survey data to study how district‐level and regional‐level income inequality is related to obesity in the UK. This is likely to be the first study of its type that uses individual‐level data that is representative of the UK population. We find little evidence to support policies that reduce income inequality with the aim of reducing obesity levels in the UK.  相似文献   
5.
中国制造业地理集聚的成因与趋势   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
改革开放以来,中国的制造业空间格局发生了显著的重构。本文基于中国省区尺度的制造业数据,描述了改革开放以来到2008年期间的中国制造业的空间集聚的变化趋势和特征。总体上,现阶段中国的制造业地理集聚程度较高,主要集聚在东部沿海地区。然而中国制造业地理集聚存在显著的产业差异,依赖于特定自然资源投入的产业,地理集聚程度相对较低,而依赖大量中间产品投入的资本技术密集型产业的地理集聚度则较高。劳动密集型产业由于是外资主导并且以出口为主,高度集中在沿海省区。中国的产业集聚变化趋势具有明显的阶段性特征,从上个世纪90年代初开始,产业地理集聚程度上升进入了加速期,地理集聚程度在2004年左右达到顶峰。本文回顾了中国产业地理集聚的理论和实证研究,传统的贸易理论、新经济地理学理论和集聚经济理论是理解中国的产集聚的重要视角,但中国转型经济的特殊制度环境下,市场化、全球化和地方分权对中国制造业集聚和分散具有显著影响。随着中国经济转型的深化及其在全球经济体中地位的调整,全球力量与地方力量的相互作用将不断重塑中国的制造业地理格局。  相似文献   
6.
[目的]揭示生猪养殖环境规制的地区差距和演变趋势,为学者们度量生猪养殖环境规制提供方法借鉴。[方法]文章统计了2000—2019年国家级、部委级、省级、厅局级和县市级与生猪养殖污染治理有关的环境政策数量,然后采用因子分析法计算了环境政策数量的综合指数,在此基础上,运用Dagum基尼系数分解法考察了生猪养殖环境规制的地区差距及演变趋势。[结果]样本考察期间,我国生猪养殖环境规制强度呈逐年上升趋势,但存在明显的空间非均衡特征。随着时间推移,生猪养殖环境规制的总体区域差距呈先上升后下降的倒U趋势。地区间差距是导致生猪养殖环境规制总体区域差距的主要原因,而超变密度和地区内差距是次要原因。[结论]总体来看,我国各地区的生猪养殖环境规制日趋严格,但存在明显的地区差异,南方水网地区、传统生猪主产区等地区的环境规制强度相对较大,但随着时间推移,这种地区间的差距有逐渐缩小的趋势,说明各地区的生猪养殖环境规制强度在未来会趋同。  相似文献   
7.
This paper scrutinizes the conventional wisdom about trends in UK income inequality and also places contemporary inequality in a much longer historical perspective. We combine household survey and income tax data to provide better coverage of all income ranges from the bottom to the very top (and make our estimates available to other researchers). We make a case for studying distributions of income between tax units (i.e. not assuming the full income sharing that goes with the use of the household as the unit of analysis) for reasons of principle as well as data harmonization. We present evidence that income inequality in the UK is as least as high today as it was just before the start of World War 2.  相似文献   
8.
文章基于2008-2017年制造业上市公司信贷数据,采用Dagum基尼系数、Kernel密度估计等方法实证考察了中国三大地区及四大行业群信贷配置的差距及其动态演进,并利用空间面板数据对信贷配置的时空收敛性进行检验。研究结果表明:(1)总体来看,中国信贷配置水平呈上升趋势,但信贷资金的地区配置和行业配置存在明显差距。(2)从地区角度,中国信贷配置总体差距、地区内差距和地区间差距均呈下降趋势,东部地区信贷配置较为均衡,未出现分化现象,中、西部地区的信贷配置在部分年份具有极化现象,且极化程度有所差异。具体来看,超变密度是总体差距的主要来源,各地区内省份之间信贷配置水平的非均衡性不断加强,地区内差距的贡献率逐渐上升,而地区间差距对总体差距的贡献率呈现下降的态势。(3)从行业角度,各行业群信贷配置差距的波动更加明显,呈现行业内差距和行业间差距演变趋势不一致的走向,其中资本投入拉动型行业群的内部差距呈扩大趋势,技术创新驱动型行业群的内部差距波动最大,劳动密集优势型行业群与技术创新驱动型行业群间差距最大。(4)此外,考虑时间和空间因素的收敛模型表明,在2008-2013年和2014-2017年两个样本时间段中,尽管中国信贷配置的时空收敛速度存在差距,但其时空收敛性是明显的,从经济进入新常态以来,外围区域向中心区域的追赶速度降低了。  相似文献   
9.
The well‐known index of income bipolarization proposed by Wolfson (1994) requires two groups to be split according to the median income and, therefore, to be non‐overlapping. The aim of this paper is to propose a new polarization index in the spirit of the Wolfson index. It allows for any possible partition of the population in two or more (also overlapping) groups. The new index maintains the simplicity and immediate comprehension of the Wolfson index, though being much more flexible. An application is then provided for German and Italian income data.  相似文献   
10.
More than a century ago, Corrado Gini proposed his well-known concentration index for measuring the degree of inequality in the distribution of income and wealth. His index is still extremely relevant and widely used in several fields of research and application. In this paper, we focus on the inferential properties of the Gini index, and discuss the main directions of analysis proposed in the literature. The aim of the paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the main developments on the inferential aspects of the Gini concentration ratio. We feel that this work can provide a valuable contribution to those scholars who are approaching the large amount of literature on the inferential properties of the Gini index.  相似文献   
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