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1.
Franchising has rapidly grown in Saudi Arabia since 2005, yet a small number of the large companies dominate the market with mostly foreign brands. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the barriers that Saudi small and medium enterprises and startups face when striving to become franchisors or franchisees. These barriers are investigated through the use of semi-structured interviews with people who belong to the franchise community either as administrators, franchise committee members, franchise developers, franchisees–franchisors, or prospective franchisees and franchisors. The results of this study show that there are several barriers standing against using franchising as a mode of expansion and investment by small and medium enterprises and startups, such as lack of legal, financial, institutional, marketing, development, and educational services support, and other key factors related to international franchisors' preferences and domestic franchising.  相似文献   
2.
Between 2001 and 2005, the US airline industry faced financial turmoil while the European airline industry entered a period of substantive deregulation. Consequently, this opened up opportunities for low-cost carriers to become more competitive in the market. To assess airline performance and identify the sources of efficiency in the immediate aftermath of these events, we employ a bootstrap data envelopment analysis truncated regression approach. The results suggest that at the time the mainstream airlines needed to significantly reorganize and rescale their operations to remain competitive. In the second-stage analysis, the results indicate that private ownership, status as a low-cost carrier, and improvements in weight load contributed to better organizational efficiency.  相似文献   
3.
Despite the explosive growth of the Chinese aviation sector and the major industry reforms undertaken in recent decades, the Chinese domestic market remains highly concentrated with a significant element of regulation and governmental control in areas such as market entry and airline fleet planning. In this study, we investigate the frequency strategies and aircraft choices of airlines operating in this concentrated growth market. Our empirical investigation suggests that airlines mainly accommodate rapid traffic growth by flying more frequently, although increased aircraft size also contributes to market expansion. We also find a negative relationship between market concentration and flight frequency. Due to the more balanced market structure resulting from mergers among leading airlines since 2002, there has been a moderate reduction in market concentration at route level, contributing to a 3.7% increase in traffic volume from 2002 to 2008. The results of our study suggest that Chinese travelers have yet to fully enjoy the benefits of market liberalization, and airports should prioritize increasing capacity related to aircraft movements over the accommodation of larger aircraft.  相似文献   
4.
This paper examines the cost structures of the leading integrated air cargo carriers, FedEx Express and UPS Airlines. A total cost model is estimated for the two carriers using quarterly data on domestic operations and costs over a nine-year period (2003–2011). The estimated model indicates that the integrated industry exhibits increasing returns to traffic density and constant returns to scale. Accounting for carrier-specific differences in cost structure and network size, FedEx Express is found to be more cost-efficient than UPS Airlines. Looking at the carriers individually, UPS Airlines exhibits substantial economies of traffic density and constant returns to scale while FedEx Express' cost structure is characterized by weak economies of density and constant returns to scale. The combined effect of returns to density and returns to scale on the cost structures of integrated carriers is captured by economies of size. Both FedEx Express and UPS Airlines exhibit economies of size, indicating that carriers in the integrated industry can be more cost efficient by making appropriate adjustments to their network size as their output grows. Moreover, the relative cost-efficiencies of the carriers are reversed when their network-size differences are not controlled.  相似文献   
5.
This article studies a container drayage problem with flexible orders defined by using requiring and releasing attributes as a unified formulation of various order types. A determined-activities-on-vertex (DAOV) graph introduces a temporary vertex set to formulate different truck statuses. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model based on the DAOV graph. Four strategies including a window partition based (WPB) strategy are presented and evaluated extensively to solve the problem. Results indicate that the WPB method could solve the problem effectively and efficiently. Furthermore, this method is robust considering the operating time biases compared to other algorithms.  相似文献   
6.
This paper proposes a dynamic optimization–simulation model as a decision support system for one-way carsharing organizations. To reduce the vehicle imbalance in one-way systems, a Vehicle Relocation Optimization model is solved successively in a discrete event simulation. Each event is the arrival of a new user. The model is compared to an a priori benchmark model. Autoshare is chosen as a case study. Results show that increasing the reservation time (time between requesting and picking up a vehicle) from 0 to 30 min reduces fleet size by 86%. The model captures a tradeoff between vehicle relocation hours and fleet size.  相似文献   
7.
HPLC 法测定豆腐黄浆水中有机酸质量浓度   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
建立利用反相高效液相色谱法同时快速的测定豆腐黄浆水中柠檬酸、苹果酸、酒石酸、草酸、富马酸、琥珀酸6种有机酸的方法.采用Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱;紫外检测器,检测波长为210 nm;流动相为甲醇∶0.01 mol/L KH2PO4-H3PO4缓冲溶液(3∶97,pH值为2.85);流速为0.8 mL/min;柱温为25℃;进样量为20μL.在最佳色谱条件下,柠檬酸、苹果酸、草酸等6种有机酸能同时、快速的分离.线性相关系数r>0.9824,检出限为0.5558~1.2948μg/mL,相对标准偏差0.13%~4.2%,该方法具有分析速度快,重现性好,精密度高,定量准确等特点.适用于豆腐黄浆水中有机酸的定量分析,对黄浆水开发利用有重要意义.  相似文献   
8.
安徽省在实现城乡公共文化服务均等化中已取得一定成绩,但还存在发展观念偏差,资金来源等方面非均等化问题。因此,必须转变发展观念,积极发展农村公共文化服务;丰富资金来源,为城乡公共文化服务均等化提供物质载体;加强公共文化服务基础设施建设,缩小城乡差距;以城带乡,实现城乡公共文化服务人才队伍均等化;加强城乡公共文化交流,奉献农民喜闻乐见的文化产品。  相似文献   
9.
为了探索适合高职学生学习特点的教学方法,提高教学质量,本文就研学结合教学理念的内涵、实施路径、特征和目的进行了探索和研究,并在微观经济学课程中进行试验。结果显示教学效果良好,教学质量得到提升,学生的学习兴趣得以提高,主动参与的积极性增加,培养了学生分析问题和解决问题的能力,为专业训练和实践打好基础。论文最后就研学结合教学理念在微观经济学课程实施中存在的问题进行了剖析,并提出了进一步探索和努力地方向。  相似文献   
10.
物流配送“最后一公里”是个复杂系统,具有不确定性,已经成为影响京城物流行业发展的瓶颈.“最后一公里”配送是物流活动得以顺畅进行的根本保证,是京城物流发展的重要环节之一.如今在物流配送末端相对滞后的情况下,物流成本不断增加,而“最后一公里”又是导致物流成本上升的主要因素,一方面,在短时间内物流的末端配送难以摆脱对成本的控制,另一方面,高额的人力资源制约着物流行业利润上升空间.本文运用复杂系统理论,并结合物联网信息技术对物流配送“最后一公里”中存在的问题提出对策及实施方案,期望对京城物流行业的发展有所裨益.  相似文献   
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