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世界金融危机及其对中国经济的影响   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
美国次贷危机的爆发是一个历史性事件,它标志着美国超前的消费模式和自由资本主义模式的终结,也标志着旧的世界经济体系的崩溃,世界经济将进入一个大的调整和动荡时期。受其影响。我国未来数年内外部需求增长将明显下降,并导致工业增速相应放慢。同时,次贷危机降低了居民未来的收入预期,居民的娱乐、旅游、教育、通讯等消费可能进一步降温。以住房、汽车为对象的信用消费可能出现明显下滑。但从长期看,我国国内经济增长潜力巨大,国际位势相对有利,为了降低风险和把握机遇,我们需要采取积极措施,刺激内需增长。加速经济结构的转型,保持经济平稳快速增长。  相似文献
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长期以来,消费理论研究是宏观经济增长研究的重点内容,发展经济学的重要研究领域,微观经济学消费行为研究的核心内容。本文分析延续从消费差异论到消费决定论,最后回归消费增长论的逻辑主线。借助1978~2007年的城乡居民消费及相关经济数据,依据消费的持久收入假设,估计了城乡居民消费函数,发现两者差异主要来自持久收入和自发性消费的影响。基于VAR模型的参数估计结果表明:城乡消费不仅在消费水平和增长率决定因素方面存在显著差异,并且在自身冲击和收入冲击的效应方面亦存在显著差异;在影响农村居民消费增加的众多因素中,收入增加成为关键因素。城乡收入不平等以及农村内部的不平等都使得刺激农村消费需求面临困境,而回归农村经济发展以及收入分配的增量改革和存量调整都是解决困境的重要途径。  相似文献
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影响当前宏观经济形势的主要因素   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
2008年以来,国内外的经济形势发生了很大变化,我国宏观调控政策的累积成效开始明显显现,经济增长率开始高位回调。该文认为经济持续升温的态势已经扭转,开始进入下行通道;价格涨幅持续攀高的态势也有所缓解;但国内经济的一些新问题如生产企业所面临的困难、房地产业所面临的挑战以及居民消费的降温值得重视;美国金融问题的发展及其对中国的影日向需充分估计;最后文章认为只要把握好宏观经济政策的力度和调节的时机,我国就能够继续保持经济平稳较快发展的总体态势。  相似文献
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The main objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of private consumption growth volatility in India, focusing on the role of financial sector policies. Using data for India over the period 1950-2005, the results show that the implementation of financial repressionist policies is strongly associated with lower consumption volatility. The results remain robust after controlling for a wide range of macroeconomic shocks and variables. The presence of a threshold effect implies that the benefits of financial reforms in reducing consumption volatility can only be reaped when the financial system becomes sufficiently liberalized. The results also indicate that the presence of a more open financial system may serve to dampen fluctuations in private consumption.  相似文献
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We define a country’s beta as the covariance of domestic consumption growth with world consumption growth scaled by the world’s variance. Beta is related to a country’s risk-taking position in models of international financial integration. Empirically, we find that an increase in beta leads to an increase in average consumption growth. This beta-growth relationship is present only among countries with high levels of financial openness, and is absent among the rest. However, we cannot fully discard the presence of non-financial factors (e.g., trade openness) as determinants of the beta-growth relationship.  相似文献
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The structural uncertainty model with Bayesian learning, advanced by Weitzman (AER 2007), provides a framework for gauging the effect of structural uncertainty on asset prices and risk premiums. This paper provides an operational version of this approach that incorporates realistic priors about consumption growth volatility, while guaranteeing finite asset pricing quantities. In contrast to the extant literature, the resulting asset pricing model with subjective expectations yields well-defined expected utility, finite moment generating function of the predictive distribution of consumption growth, and tractable expressions for equity premium and risk-free return. Our quantitative analysis reveals that explaining the historical equity premium and risk-free return, in the context of subjective expectations, requires implausible levels of structural uncertainty. Furthermore, these implausible prior beliefs result in consumption disaster probabilities that virtually coincide with those implied by more realistic priors. At the same time, the two sets of prior beliefs have diametrically opposite asset pricing implications.  相似文献
7.
我国城镇居民消费对收入的过度敏感性较强,面临流动性约束的居民占比较高,影响收入增长的政策能够对消费起到刺激作用。但是以消费信贷额、借贷利差表示的信贷条件对居民消费的促进作用并不明显。进一步的考察显示,消费信贷资源没有流向最有可能面临流动性约束的低收入群体,是其未能对消费形成有力影响的原因所在。  相似文献
8.
投资、消费和出口是经济增长的三大动力。但目前我国的经济增长主要是靠投资和出口拉动的,消费对经济增长拉动的效力甚微。因此分析制约国内居民消费增长率的因素,寻找提高消费增长率的途径,提高消费增长率,促进国民经济稳步发展,具有重要的理论和现实意义。  相似文献
9.
We use a Bayesian method to estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model featuring long-run risks. Although the model is generally consistent with consumption and dividend growth moments in annual data, the conditional mean of consumption growth (a latent process) is not persistent enough to satisfy the restriction that the price-dividend ratio be an affine function of the latent process. The model also requires relatively high intertemporal elasticity of substitution to match the low volatility of the risk-free return. These two restrictions lead to the equity volatility puzzle. The model accounts for only 50% of the total variation in asset returns.  相似文献
10.
We show that inflation disagreement, not just expected inflation, has an impact on nominal interest rates. In contrast to expected inflation, which mainly affects the wedge between real and nominal yields, inflation disagreement affects nominal yields predominantly through its impact on the real side of the economy. We show theoretically and empirically that inflation disagreement raises real and nominal yields and their volatilities. Inflation disagreement is positively related to consumers’ cross-sectional consumption growth volatility and trading in fixed income securities. Calibrating our model to disagreement, inflation, and yields reproduces the economically significant impact of inflation disagreement on yield curves.  相似文献
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